Wildlife and human destruction and extinction.

Water, land and air are getting increasingly polluted, water tables are falling, soil erosion is leading to desertification, global warming is well underway, and species are dying out 1000 times faster than their natural rate of extinction.

In the near future, anthropogenic extinction scenarios exist: global nuclear annihilation, total global war, dysgenics, overpopulation, global accidental pandemic, ecological collapse, and global warming.
Environmental degradation is a result of socio-economical, technological and institutional activities. Degradation occurs when Earth's natural resources are depleted. These resources which are affected include: Water, Air, Soil, Plants, Animals and Microorganisms.

Global warming to make 2015 hottest year ever!

Arctic ice, 1980 and 2012.

A new study has warned that Glaciers in the Everest region of the Himalayas could shrink at least 70 per cent or even disappear entirely by 2100 due to global warming.

The next ice age could begin any day. Melting Ice Slows Down Ocean Circulation. The water in the Global Ocean Conveyor circulates because of differences in water density, which are caused by differences in temperature and salinity. Colder water is denser than warmer water, while saltier water is denser than fresh water. Water heated near the Equator travels at the surface of the ocean north into cold high latitudes where it becomes cooler. As it cools, it becomes denser and sinks to the deep ocean. More warm surface water flows in to take its place, cools, sinks, and the pattern continues. As the Earth continues to warm and Arctic sea ice melts, the influx of freshwater from the melting ice is making seawater at high latitudes less salty and hence less dense.
This ocean circulation interference caused by global warming could lead to a cooling in Western Europe. Currently the ocean currents carry warmth from the tropics up to the high latitudes. That warmth is lost to the atmosphere keeping the temperatures of places like England, Norway, and many other counties in northern Europe a bit milder than other places at the same latitude. If the Global Ocean Conveyor were to stop completely, the average temperature of Northern Europe would cool 5° to 10° Celsius, but even a slow down could lead to a measurable cooling.

We are losing forestland at a rate of 375 km2 each day. The world has already lost 80% of its original forests.1.1 billion acres of tropical forest were cleared in just thirty years, between 1960 and 1990. Brazil lost 91.4 million acres of its tropical forest between 1980 and 1990.

in Nigeria prevails as one of the nations most severe environmental issue. According to data, Nigeria has the worlds worst deforestation rate at 3.5%. Between 2000-2010 the nation lost 31% of its forest cover and in 2000-2005 it lost more than half of its primary forests.

The 2015 Antarctic ozone hole formed later than usual and had the fourth-largest area measured since the start of the satellite record in 1979. Ozone protects life on Earth from the Suns ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

On Oct. 2, 2015, the ozone hole expanded to its peak of 28.2 million square kilometers, an area larger than the continent of North America. Throughout October, the hole remained large and set many area daily records.

A swathe of China was blanketed with acrid smog 9. november after levels of dangerous particulates reached around 50 times World Health Organization maximums, in what environmental campaigners said were the highest figures ever recorded in the country.

In 1952, the Great Smog of London killed 8000 people. Air pollution in India is estimated to cause 527.700 deaths every year.

Every 1 million ton of oil that is shipped, approximately 1 ton from gets wasted in the form of spills.

The Kuwaiti oil fires
were caused by Iraqi military forces setting fire to a reported 605 to 732 oil wells along with an unspecified number of oil filled low-lying areas, such as oil lakes and fire trenches, as part of a scorched earth policy while retreating from Kuwait in 1991 due to the advances of Coalition military forces in the Persian Gulf War. foto:NASA
The fires were started in January and February 1991, and the first well fires were extinguished in early April 1991, with the last well capped on November 6, 1991.

foto:Steve McCurry

The Kuwaiti Oil Minister estimated that in terms of total oil spilled, between 25-50 000 000 barrels of unburned oil from damaged facilities pooled to create approximately 300 oil lakes, that contaminated around 40 million tons of sand and earth. The mixture of desert sand, unignited oil spilled and soot generated by the burning oil wells formed layers of hard "tarcrete" which covered nearly five percent of Kuwaits land mass.

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill
began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-owned Transocean-operated Macondo Prospect. Spill date: 20 April - 19 september 2010.  Volume - 4.9 million barrels.

Today garbage too often accumulates in an unregulated manner, such as with the Great Garbage Patch, a floating sea of debris in the Pacific Ocean that is twice the size of Texas.The trash ranges from microscopic pieces of plastic to large chunks.

Researchers estimated between 4.7million and 12.7million tons of plastic made its way into the worlds oceans in 2010, with a best estimate of 8million tons.
The Plastic Island.
Between 2010 and 2025, some 155million tons of plastic could be dumped into the ocean enough to fill 100 bags per foot of coastline.

In Lagos, Nigeria, highly toxic electronic waste, much of which is shipped from developed countries, creates health and ecological problems.

Maldives and garbage island.

The largest nuclear weapon
ever tested was the "Tsar Bomba" of the Soviet Union at Novaya Zemlya on October 30, 1961, with the largest yield ever seen, an estimated 50-58 megatons.

Operation Crossroads
was a pair of nuclear weapon tests conducted by the United States at Bikini Atoll in mid-1946. Because of radioactive contamination, Bikini remains uninhabited.

Chemist Glenn T. Seaborg, the longest-serving chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, called Operation Crossroads "the world's first nuclear disaster."
Our species caused 322 animal extinctions over the past 500 years, with two-thirds of those occurring in the last two centuries.

Earth has lost half of its wildlife in the past 40 years, says WWF. The steep decline of animal, fish and bird numbers was calculated by analysing 10.000 different populations, covering 3000 species in total. This data was then, for the first time, used to create a representative Living Planet Index, reflecting the state of all 45.000 known vertebrates. One third of all land mammals and bird risk extincion by 2050.

thousands of chinese trawlers
In many maritime regions of the world, illegal fishing has massively contributed to the depletion of fish stocks, especially in developing countries coastal waters.

3.24 > A chase at sea near South Korea: an entire fleet of illegal Chinese fishing vessels attempts to evade the South Korean Coast Guard. The fishermen were arrested by armed units soon afterwards. © Dong-A Ilbo/AFP ImageForum/Getty Images
Some experts put the annual figure at around 11 million tonnes; others suggest that it may be as high as 26 million tonnes equal to 14 or 33 per cent respectively of the worlds total legal catch (fish and other marine fauna) in 2011.

Greenpeace activists in an inflatable intercept the worlds second largest factory fishing trawler, the FV Margiris and attempt to block the monster ship from entering Port Lincoln in South Australia.

The wildlife trade
involves hundreds of millions of wild plants and animals from tens of thousands of species. To provide a glimpse of the scale of wildlife trafficking, there are records of over 100 million tonnes of fish, 1.5 million live birds and 440,000 tonnes of medicinal plants in trade in just one year.

75% of all the fish stocks in the world are already either: exploited, over-exploited or recovering. 27% of coral reefs have already been and 70% of Earth's coral reefs will cease to exist within the next forty years.
The world has lost half of its coastal wetlands, including mangrove swamps and salt marshes.
shark finning
bear paws

In the next 30 years, as many as one-fifth of all species alive today will become extinct.
23% of all mammals and 12% of all birds species were considered "threatened" in 2003.
At the worlds current rates, 5-10% of tropical forest species will become extinct every decade.

aquarium fish

The Chinchaga fire was a forest fire that burned in northern British Columbia and Alberta in the summer and early fall of 1950. With a final size of between 1400000 ha and 1700000 ha, it is the single largest recorded fire in North American history. The fire was allowed to burn freely, a result of local forest management policy and the lack of settlements in the region.


In the early 1960s, the Soviet government decided the two rivers that fed the Aral Sea, the Amu Darya in the south and the Syr Darya in the east, would be diverted to irrigate the desert, in an attempt to grow rice, melons, cereals, and cotton. This was part of the Soviet plan for cotton, or "white gold", to become a major export.

The construction of irrigation canals began on a large scale in the 1940s. Many of the canals were poorly built, allowing water to leak or evaporate. From the Qaraqum Canal, the largest in Central Asia, perhaps 30 to 75% of the water went to waste.

From 1960 to 1998, the sea's surface area shrank by about 60%, and its volume by 80%. In 1960, the Aral Sea had been the world's fourth-largest lake, with an area around 68,000 km2 and a volume of 1,100 km3; by 1998, it had dropped to 28,687 km2 and eighth largest.

The Three Gorges Dam is the worlds largest power station.
Flooding land for a hydroelectric reservoir has an extreme environmental impact: it destroys forest, wildlife habitat, agricultural land, and scenic lands. In many instances, such as the Three Gorges Dam in China, entire communities have also had to be relocated to make way for reservoirs.

Flooding caused by the Merowe Dam along the Nile in Sudan.

The Churchill Falls Generating Station is a hydroelectric power station located on the Churchill River in Newfoundland and Labrador. The construction involved the flooding of over 5000 km2 of traditional hunting and trapping lands. The generating station was commissioned between 1971 and 1974. Despite vocal objections to many dams from civil society the number of planned dam projects in tropical regions is growing. On the Mekong alone, one of tropical Asia's biologically richest rivers, some 11 dams are planned by 2030, while 77 hydroelectric projects are in the works for the Mekong Basin. Meanwhile some 150 dams are planned in the Amazon Basin.

The Chernobyl Nuclear disaster
is widely considered to have been the worst power plant accident in history on 26 April 1986 in the town of Pripyat, in Ukraine. The battle to contain the contamination and avert a greater catastrophe ultimately involved over 500,000 workers. An explosion and fire released large quantities of radioactive particles into the atmosphere, which spread over much of the western USSR and Europe. Approximate radiation levels Vicinity of the reactor core 30,000 roentgens per hour. Four hundred times more radioactive material was released from Chernobyl than by the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. Approximately 100,000 km² of land was significantly contaminated with fallout, with the worst hit regions being in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. Of the approximately 500,000 'liquidators' that were engaged in the Chernobyl clean-up, roughly 50,000 were required to work as 'bio-robots', in conditions of such extreme radiation that electronic robots ceased to operate.

The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster was an energy accident at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant, initiated primarily by the tsunami of the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. Radioactive Water From Fukushima Is Systematically Poisoning The Entire Pacific Ocean.

Urbanization is a population shift from rural to urban areas. The United Nations projected that half of the world's population would live in urban areas at the end of 2008. It is predicted that by 2050 about 64% of the developing world and 86% of the developed world will be urbanized.
The mix of changing environmental conditions and the growing population of urban regions, according to UN experts, will strain basic sanitation systems and health care, and potentially cause a humanitarian and environmental disaster.

The most populous urban agglomerations as of July 1, 2015 - Guangzhou, China - 46.900.000.

The Bhopal disaster, also referred to as the Bhopal gas tragedy, was a gas leak incident in India, considered the world's worst industrial disaster. It occurred on the night of 23 December 1984 at the Union Carbide India Limited pesticide plant in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. Over 500,000 people were exposed to methyl isocyanate gas and other chemicals. The toxic substance made its way into and around the shanty towns located near the plant.

Top 10 Anthropogenic environmental disasters -

1. Bhopal: the Union Carbide gas leak
2. Chernobyl: Russian nuclear power plant explosion
3. Seveso: Italian dioxin crisis
4. The 1952 London smog disaster
5. Major oil spills of the 20th and 21st century
6. The Love Canal chemical waste dump
7. The Baia Mare cyanide spill
8. The European BSE crisis
9. Spanish waste water spill
10. The Three Mile Island near nuclear disaster

In October 2010, the small town of Ajka, Veszprém County, in western Hungary, witnessed an environmental disaster that is considered the worst in the countrys history.

There are more than 500 million cars in the world and by 2030 the number will rise to 1 billion. This means pollution level will be more than double.

A single car generates half a ton of CO2 and a NASA space shuttle releases 28 tons of C02.

Kudzu, a Japanese vine species invasive in the southeast US, growing in Atlanta, Georgia
Invasive species are one of the leading threats to native wildlife. Approximately 42% of Threatened or Endangered species are at risk primarily due to invasive species.

An invasive species can be any kind of living organisman amphibian, plant, insect, fish, fungus, bacteria, or even an organisms seeds or eggs that is not native to an ecosystem and which causes harm. Or animal species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and which has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health. Hundreds of extinctions have been caused by invasive alien species. The ecological cost is the irretrievable loss of native species and ecosystems.
The impacts of invasive species on our natural ecosystems and economy cost billions of dollars each year. Many of our commercial, agricultural, and recreational activities depend on healthy native ecosystems.

Rabbits in Australia. Australia is host to 56 introduced invasive vertebrate animal species.

Invasive species are primarily spread by human activities, often unintentionally. People, and the goods we use, travel around the world very quickly, and they often carry uninvited species with them. Ships can carry aquatic organisms in their ballast water. Insects can get into wood, shipping palettes and crates that are shipped around the world. Some ornamental plants can escape into the wild and become invasive. Some invasive species are intentionally or accidentally released pets.

With half a million pieces of space debris cluttering Earths orbit, according to NASA, this means there is a growing problem of cluttering up our access road to space.
According to NASA, Americas space agency, the skies high above the Earth are cluttered up with around 23,000 pieces of man-made space junk measuring 10 cm or more across, zipping along at great speed and posing a threat to working satellites.

A fleck of paint travelling at an orbital velocity of 17,500kph can dent a spacecraft, kill an astronaut or do enough damage to throw a satellite off course. Inoperative rockets are prone to random explosions of the unused fuel they carry. In February a snag in an American weather satellites battery caused it to explode. The incident scattered more than 100 new fragments of junk into space. In 2007 China deliberately blasted one of its own spacecraft in a test of an anti-satellite weapon.

Adverse alteration of water quality presently produces large scale illness and deaths, accounting for approximately 50 million deaths per year worldwide, most of these deaths occurring in Africa and Asia. In China, for example, about 75 percent of the population (or 1.1 billion people) are without access to unpolluted drinking water, according to China's own standards.

Citarum River is located west of the crowded island of Java in Indonesia, runs along 350 km., In the past was used for fishing and irrigation. It is now considered one of the most polluted rivers in the world.
Beijing, May 2007. Environmental activists show samples of water taken from the Chinese city of rivers and lake.

Eco-Everest clean-up expeditions led by Dawa Steven sherpa each year since 2008 have retrieved 15,000 kilograms of trash.

Human waste piling up over decades gave off an "unpleasant odour" and posed a health hazard to people dependent on water from rivers fed by the region's melting glaciers.

Human excrement is a bigger problem than the oxygen bottles, torn tents, broken ladders, and cans or wrappers teams left behind, Nepal Mountaineering Association chief Ang Tshering sherpa said. Some 4000 climbers have scaled Mount Everest, with snow shrouding the bodies of at least 260 who have died trying.

Agent Orange
or Herbicide Orange is one of the herbicides and defoliants used by the U.S. military as part of its herbicidal warfare program, Operation Ranch Hand, during the Vietnam War from 1961 to 1971. About 17.8 percent  3,100,000 hectares of the total forested area of Vietnam was sprayed during the war, which disrupted the ecological equilibrium.

Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research, and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments. No animals are safe from experimentation primates, dogs, rats, mice, rabbits, pigs, fish, and cats are just a few of the animals who are routinely used in these tests. Researchers kill 25 to 50 million animals each year. Worldwide it is estimated that the number of vertebrate animals from zebrafish to non-human primates ranges from the tens of millions to more than 100 million used annually.

PETA opposes zoos because cages and cramped enclosures at zoos deprive animals of the opportunity to satisfy their most basic needs. In general, zoos and wildlife parks preclude or severely restrict natural behavior, such as flying, swimming, running, hunting, climbing, scavenging, foraging, digging, exploring, and selecting a partner. The physical and mental frustrations of captivity often lead to abnormal, neurotic, and even self-destructive behavior, such as incessant pacing, swaying, head-bobbing, bar-biting, and self-mutilation.Proponents of zoos like to claim that zoos protect species from extinction seemingly a noble goal. However, wild-animal parks and zoos almost always favor large and charismatic animals who draw large crowds of visitors, but they neglect less popular species that also need to be protected.Warehousing animals for life is not the way to save them from extinction. Their salvation lies in protecting habitats, not in creating animal prisons. Instead of patronizing zoos, you can help animals by supporting organizations that work to protect captive animals from exploitation and preserve habitats.

Each year, approximately 10,000 bulls die in bullfights, an inaccurate term for events in which there is very little competition between a nimble, sword-wielding matador and a confused, maimed, psychologically tormented, and physically debilitated animal.

Sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis) live in all of the world's oceans, where they spend summer feeding in cold waters and winter migrating to tropical or sub-tropical zones to breed. But although they're widespread, sei whales number only about 80,000 in total. This is largely a result of the whaling industry of the 19th and 20th centuries, when an estimated 300,000 sei whales were killed for meat and oil.

Ice floe strewn with seal carcasses.
Oover 300,000 seal pups were killed each year. Harp seals, which can live for 30-35 years and only reach sexual maturity between 4-6 years, are targeted by the sealers when they are between 3 weeks and 3 months of age. Many of these have not yet taken to the water or eaten their first solid meal.

85 percent of the fur industrys skins come from animals on fur factory farms - dismal, often filthy places where thousands of animals are usually kept in wire cages for their entire lives. To cut costs, fur farmers pack animals into unbearably small cages, preventing them from taking more than a few steps in any direction or doing anything that is natural and important to them, such as running, swimming, making nests, and finding mates. Many animals go insane under these conditions.

Conquest of the Americas
or European colonization of the Americas -   145,000,000 death (1492-1898)

World War II
- 85,000,000 death (1939-1945)

HIV / AIDS pandemic in Congo Basin - 30,000,000 death (1960- present)

Norges høyeste fjell.

foto: Arnt Flatmo

Galdhøpiggen ("Piggen") er Norges og Nord-Europas høyeste fjell med sine 2469 meter over havet.

Navnet kommer av gald, 'bratt bergvei, kleiv'; sammenheng med høg.

I vår tid ble Galdhøpiggen første gang besteget 1850, men det er funnet en pil fra yngre jernalder på selve toppen.


Glittertind konkurrerer med Galdhøpiggen i å være det høyeste punktet siden den har en diger snøfonn oppå toppen. Glittertind har fast fjell på 2452 moh og høyden av snøfonnen vil variere med snøforholdene.
I 1931 ble Glittertind med breen målt til 2481,4 moh, den minket noe først på 30 tallet men vokste til 2487moh i 1940 (35meter tykk).
På 1960 tallet smeltet breen en del og havnet på en høyde på ca 2472moh.
På 1970 tallet lå høyden på ca 2471moh og var den siste målingen der Glittertind var Norges høyeste punkt fremfor Galdhøpiggen.
På 1980 tallet og fram til 1996 lå den på ca 2464moh, så la den på seg (ukjent hvor mye) fram til 1998, minket deretter og endte så på 2465,6 i Juni 2000.
Så frem mot 2003 minket breen til ca 2462,5moh.
Uten breen på toppen er høyden 2452 moh. og med breen regnes for tiden høyden å være 2466 moh. (kartverket.no)
Lurer på om toppen kan ha vært 2500 meter høy rundt 1740.
Den lille istiden - en periode i Europa som var preget av kjøligere og mer ekstremt klima. Den strukket seg fra 1500-tallet til 1800-tallet. I Norden regnes lavmålet for å ha blitt nådd på 1740-tallet, da isbreene nådde sin største utbredelse etter siste istid.

Drar til Antarktis for å klatre, frikjøre og hoppe i Norges høyeste fjell. Dronning Maud Land er delen av det antarktiske kontinent mellom 20° vestlig til 45° østlig lengde som utgjør Norges territoriale krav. Kysten av dette området ble i 1939 annektert av Norge.
Jøtulkyrkja3148 meter er faktisk Norges høyeste fjell.

Høyeste punkt i Dronning Maud Land er Valkyrjedomen3810 moh. i den østlige delen av Kong Haakon VIIs vidde. Valkyrjedomen er en iskuppel. Den representerer et isskille. Den japanske forskningsstasjonen Dome Fuji ligger her.

With an altitude of 3810 m above sea level, it is the second-highest summit or ice dome of the East Antarctic ice sheetThe East Antarctic Ice Sheet
is one of two large ice sheets in Antarctica, and the largest on the entire planet.

Snøhetta (2286 m.o.h.) rager som en mektig kjegle opp over Dovrefjells høyfjellsplatå og var, før Jotunheimen ble kjent, regnet for Norges høyeste topp og spiller en vesentlig rolle i nasjonalromantikkens ideologi om fjellnorge.

"Enige og tro til Dovre faller", det kjente sitatet fra grunnlovens fedre på Eidsvold, vitner om dette.

Kartverket har fastsett høgder i Noreg meir eller mindre systematisk sidan slutten av 1700-talet. I starten nytta ein kvikksølvbarometer, og med utgangspunkt i lufttrykket rekna ein seg fram til høgda.

Høidemaalinger metodar og utstyr blei betre utover på 1800 tallet men i ettertid ser vi at mange av målingane likevel ga store feil mellom anna fordi det ikkje var noko fast høgdegrunnlag.

Galdhøpiggen blei målt til 2560 m.o.h. (8161 fot) i 1879. På 1930-tallet hadde fjellet "krympa" til 2469 meter, som er den høgda vi finn på kartet i dag.

Ut fra punktets rettvinklede geosentriske koordinater (x=3007180,050 y=439366,408 z=5591594,651) finnes også Galdhøpiggens "høyde" målt fra jordsenteret: 6364,1 km!
Punktet som befinner seg lengst vekk fra jordens sentrum er toppen på vulkanen Chimborazo i Ecuador (fordi jorden ikke er kulerund). Det befinner seg 6384,4 km fra jordens sentrum (toppen på Mount Everest ligger på 6382,3 km).

Galdhøpiggen - 2469 m.o.h. Det nærmeste høyereliggende fjellet (Kriváň fjellet) ligger i Høye Tatra i Slovakia, 1568,3 km fra Galdhøpiggen. Kriváň fjellet med sine 2494 m.o.h. er fjellet et av de høyeste i Karpatene.

I 2005 ble et bilde av fjellet valgt til baksiden av de laveste verdiene av de slovakiske eurocentmyntene.


Exploring The National Geographic Society.

The magazine contains articles about geography, popular science, world history, culture, current events and photography of places and things all over the world and universe.

Check out National Geographic Magazines 127 year cover evolution.

Watch as the printing technologies improve, colors increase in vibrancy, pictures are added and then slowly sharpened, the typeface of the magazine title changes, the 'contents' text takes up less and less space (to be dominated by the gorgeous photography).

The terra cotta colored magazines from oct1888 to oct1895.
The first issue published in october, 1888, of only 187 issues sent to the members of the National Geographic Society formed just a nine months after the Society was founded. The magazine had no pictures and consisted of long scholarly treaties. 

The magazine was originally published irregularly, and the early issues are confusing to track, particularly as the volume numbering and the dates do not follow the same sequence. For example, Vol. IV No. 1 is dated March 26, 1892, five days after the date of Vol. IV No. 2.

Vol. I       oct 1888     No.1
Vol. I       apr 1898     No.2
Vol. I       jul                 No.3
Vol. I       oct               No.4

Vol. II       apr 1890     No.1
Vol. II       mai              No.2
Vol. II        jul               No.3
Vol. II       aug             No.4
Vol. II       oct              No.5

Vol. III    28 march 1891    PP.1-30           PL.1
Vol. III    30 apr                   PP.31-40
Vol. III    1 may                   PP.41-52
Vol. III    29 may                 PP.53-204       PLS.2-20
Vol. III    19 feb 1892         PP:205-261    I-XXXV        PL.21

Vol. IV     26 march 1892    PP.1-18
Vol. IV     21 march             PP.19-84         PLS.1-16
Vol. IV     18 march             PP.85-100
Vol. IV     31 march             PP.101-106    PL.17
Vol. IV     15 may                 PP.117-162    PLS.18-20
Vol. IV     8 feb 1893          PP.163-205
Vol. IV     20 feb                  PP.209-215    I-XXIV

Vol. V     7 apr 1893           PP.1-20         PLS.1-5
Vol. V     20 march             PP.21-44       PLS.6-19
Vol. V     29 apr                  PP.45-58       PL.20
Vol. V    10 july                  PP.59-96        Pl.21
Vol. V    31 jan 1894         PP.97-256
Vol. V    5 may 1893         PP.257-263    I-LXVIII

Vol. VI    14 feb 1894       PP.1-22
Vol. VI    17 march           PP.23-34       PLS.1-3
Vol. VI    25 apr                PP.35-62
Vol. VI    23 may              PP.63-126      PLS.4-6
Vol. VI    22 june              PP.127-148    PLS.7,8
Vol. VI    1 nov                 PP.149-178    PL.9
Vol. VI    29 dec               PP.179-238    PLS.10-14
Vol. VI    20 apr 1895     PP.239-284
Vol. VI    31 oct                PP.285-291    I-LXXXIII     PL:15

A total number of magazines from oct1888 until oct1895 - 36!

In January 1896 the magazine's cover was redesigned and the schedule was changed to monthly.

jan1896 - may1896                              jun1896 - may1899

jun1896 - may1899                              jun1899 - dec1899

jan1900 - dec1900

jan1901 - dec1903

jan1904 - march1905                        apr1905 - jan1910

The cover design changed several times in the early years, but starting with the February 1910 (Vol XXI., No. 2) issue, the magazine began using its now famous trademarked yellow border around the edge of its covers.

After the change to monthly in 1896 the magazine's schedule has been completely regular with a single exception: there was no issue dated December 1917.

november + december 1917


Everyone knows that the familiar yellow and oak leaf covers of the NGM had four globes embedded amongst the foliage: Northern and Southern hemispheres on the top and bottom and the Western and Eastern hemispheres on the left and right. These maps were revised from time to time.

feb1910 - apr1928                                may1928 - aug1966 (after that, the cover photograph began to overwrite it)                   

Unexplored Territory... map with large unexplored regions of the north and unexplored southern regions.

The Evolution of the Map on the cover of the National Geographic Magazine. In May 1961, the final version of the map was produced. It shows the entire Antarctic coast line.

48 Stars in the American flag appeared on the magazines first illustrated cover in July 1942.

During July 1942, seven months after the United States entered World War II, magazines nationwide featured the American flag on their covers. Pearl Harbor had been bombed just months before, and "people were pretty upset about what was going to happen," says Helena Wright, curator of graphic arts for the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History.  Adopting the slogan United We Stand, some 350 magazines, from Time and National Geographic to American Hairdresser publications waved the stars and stripes to promote national unity, rally support for the war, and celebrate Independence Day.

For the U.S. government, the campaign was an opportunity to sell bonds and boost morale.
For magazine publishers, displaying the flag was a way to prove their loyalty and value to the war effort. The magazines brought home a message of patriotism and ideals worth fighting for.
The partnership worked. From June 14 to July 4, the covers reinforced national unity and helped raise about $1 billion.


The July 1943 issue of National Geographic was the first to feature a photograph on the cover the American flag.

Following a tradition of American flag covers in July that began during World War II, the July 1959 issue features the new, 49-star banner. Alaska, admitted to the Union in January 1959, is profiled in several articles, and a map of the newest state is included as a supplement with the issue.


In 1959 a small colour photograph began to appear on the cover, and within a short time the current design appeared, with a full page colour picture and a yellow border.

it was retired after oct 1959

- nov1959                               dec1959,jan,feb1960                 march1960 -

 The National Geographic Magazine,  shortened to National Geographic.

From 1961, 1962 the cover's traditional interior border of oak leaves and acorns, first introduced in 1910, begins to recede around the increasingly bold feature photographs. The cover design featuring a break in the famous yellow border.

As introduced on the July 1979 cover, the oak leaf interior border crowning the magazine's title is replaced by a single garland, which remains on the cover until the end of the millennium.

aug2000                                             sept2000

This year is the last in which the magazine's cover still features a crown of laurels, the final remnant of the oak leaf border first introduced in 1910.


                                                              may 2015

National Geographic special

February1981                                 November1993

Walt Disney and National Geographic.

The first sentence in first issues (oct1888).

The first National Geographic magazine article.

First illustration - example of weather charts map.

In 1889, National Geographic magazine published its first photograph, a halftone photo engraving of a topographic map of North America, reprinted from Butler's Complete Geography, an early geography textbook. Photo: Map of North America. Photograph by E.H. Butler & Co.  


The first illustration of a natural scene - Entrance to highland. River San Juan.


The publication of the first photograph of a natural scene in the March 1890 issue of National Geographic marked another early milestone for the Society. Slightly more stimulating than its predecessor, the photograph depicted a dull stretch of treeless land on Herald Island, Alaska, taken by J.Q. Lovell of the U.S. Navy.

On November 1, 1896, a picture showing the unclad or bare breasts of a woman appeared in National Geographic magazine for the first time in the publications long history.

In 1899 Alexander Graham Bell hired a young 23 year old teacher named Gilbert H. Grosvenor to be president of the magazine. Grosvenor introduced the color pictures, including the bare chested African tribal women, and after 1905 the subscriptions soared. 

According to the Societys official website, one of the magazines early milestones came when its publishers decided that from then on out, they would show native peoples as they were, including when photographed nude.  In the case of November 1896, that months issue included a photograph of a Zulu bride (topless) and groom from South Africa.  The message conveyed is that nudity is not necessarily pornographic in nature, but that it has a legitimate, academic place when studying world cultures.

The publication of early photographs in the late 19th century marked a turning point for the magazine. The photos scandalized the scientific community to which National Geographic catered, as well as many of its own editors who feared their esteemed journal would become a picture book. But under the leadership of Alexander Graham Bell, the Geographic's staff held firm, steering the publication away from its scientific and technical foundation toward a more popular future driven by storytelling and, as Bell said, "pictures, and plenty of them."

Bell's enthusiasm for photography drove subscriptions. The first years of the 20th century saw membership jump from 3,000 to 20,000. (In 1896, the subscription reached 1000.)The editors continued to feed readers' frenzy for photos, first with images of Lhasa, Tibet, then with 138 pictures of the Philippines taken by future President William Howard Taft, followed by a July 1906 issue filled with wildlife photography by George Shiras.

By the time membership climbed to 424,000 in 1915, it was clear where the magazine's future lay. In a promotional pamphlet, associate editor John Oliver La Gorce declared, " National Geographic magazine has found a new universal language which requires no deep study - the language of the photograph!"

This photo of the Dalai Lamas palace was part of the first stand-alone photographic series in the Geographic. The 11-image tour of Lhasa, Tibet, was published in 1905.

In July 1906 National Geographic published wildlife photographs for the first time. George Shiras images of deer, birds, and other animals were the start of a long tradition at the magazine.

In 1905, George Shiras III was serving one term in the U.S. House of Representatives, a stint he agreed to in order to help a reform movement in his native Pennsylvania.

A member of the Public Lands Committee, his work eventually led to the establishment of Olympic National Monument and Petrified Forest National Monument and the extension of Yellowstone National Park. In 1904 he introduced the legislation that would eventually become the Migratory Bird Bill of 1913.

These conservation efforts won Shiras the personal congratulations of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, but it was Shiras's skills as a wildlife photographer that caught the eye of Gil Grosvenor, Director and Editor of the National Geographic Society and its magazine.

In late 1905, Grosvenor invited Shiras over to Hubbard Memorial Hall, the Society's headquarters, to have a look at the naturalist's wildlife photographs, which had won some impressive prizes. Shiras arrived with a box full of prints, hoping the editor might be able to use a few. He left surprised and delighted, for Grosvenor wanted to publish nearly all of them.

True to his word, Grosvenor printed 74 of Shiras's pictures in the July 1906 edition of the magazine, a single-article issue titled "Hunting Wild Game With Flashlight and Camera." Many years later, Grosvenor recalled it as "one of the pioneering achievements of the National Geographic. ... It was an extraordinarily educative series: Nobody had ever seen pictures like that of wild animals. ... I can't exaggerate the enthusiasm with which they were received by our members."

The issue was so popular that it was reprinted two years later, one of only two National Geographic issues to have been reprinted to this day.

Not everyone on the National Geographic Board of Managers was so pleased, however, especially the professional geographers already dubious of Grosvenor's strategy of using National Geographic to popularize geography. Alfred H. Brooks, the geologist after whom the Brooks Range in Alaska is named, deplored that the magazine was becoming merely "a picture gallery" and summarily resigned. Another member followed later that year.

Shiras and the National Geographic Society continued their association for years, however, and in 1911 Grosvenor named Shiras himself to the Board of Managers. National Geographic magazine continued to feature wildlife photography, which quickly became a hallmark of the publication.

President Roosevelt, for his part, was so impressed by the July 1906 issue that he wrote a congratulatory note to Grosvenor and implored Shiras to write a "big book" with his photos and notes of wildlife which he did, nearly 30 years later.

1935 National Geographic Hunting Wildlife With Camera and Flashlight by George Shiras  Book.

From 1912 to 1915 National Geographic supported Hiram Binghams expeditions to excavate Machu Picchu. His photos were among the first ever published of the ancient Inca city.

This image of a flower garden in Ghent, Belgium, published in 1914, was the NG magazines first natural (not hand-tinted) color photograph.

The first popular fold out maps
was of the western front of World War One. In August 1914, National Geographic magazine published a map of Europe and the Balkan States, subsequently to be the scene of one of the bloodiest conflicts in history?World War I. Editor in Chief Gilbert H. Grosvenor sensed the looming conflict and had the maps printed, stored in the basement, and ready to go.

The scope of National Geographic's cartographic department, which celebrates its hundredth anniversary in 2015, encompasses not just those bearings, but also those of every mountain, river, lake, road, reef, fjord, island, inlet, glacier, ocean, planet, galaxy, and solar system in short, any physical feature on land, on sea, or in space.

At this writing (the count is obsolete as soon as it is tallied), National Geographic cartographers have produced 438 supplement maps, ten world atlases, dozens of globes, about 3,000 maps for the magazine, and many maps in digital form.

MapGirl. An employee inserts map supplements into magazines.

To ensure readability, Charles E. Riddiford, a staff cartographer from 1923 to 1959, designed elegant map type fonts that were patented by the Society and are still in use today.

National Geographic was an early adopter of colour photography, and has become one of the best-known outlets for high-quality photojournalism. It is widely known for the high quality of its photographs, and has produced many associated publications that assemble the best of them.

In 1910, botanist William Harding Longley was studying fish specifically the protective coloration of reef-dwelling fish in the Dry Tortugas. He wanted to photograph the fish, in their natural habitat, in color. The problem? It had never been done before.

Longley's interests neatly dovetailed with those of Gilbert H. Grosvenor, President of the National Geographic Society and Editor of its magazine. Grosvenor, intending to keep the magazine in the photographic forefront, had been publishing color photographs, rarely found in periodicals of the day, at every opportunity.

So when Longley returned to the Dry Tortugas in the summer of 1926, a man from National Geographic accompanied him. As the first chief of National Geographic's newly established Photo Lab, Charles Martin knew his photographic chemistry, and after discussing the challenges of exposing Autochromes beneath the sea, he concocted a "hypersensitizing" solution to coat the plates so as to cut the exposure time from one second of daylight to 1/20 of a second. Upon arrival in the Dry Tortugas, Martin found that he had to apply the solution at dawn each morning, for the heat and humidity later in the day melted the emulsion.

Nevertheless, the hypersensitized plates were still too slow for underwater work. So in order to supplement the natural daylight and help negate the bluish hue of water, the two men elected to follow a very risky course. They decided to use highly explosive magnesium flash powder. Just a pinch of the stuff, in these pre-flashbulb days, made small explosions in photographers' flash lamps and filled rooms with smoke. Longley and Martin, however, decided to discharge an entire pound (0.5 kilograms) of it at one time. It could blow them sky-high if it sparked prematurely.

Longley moved about beneath the surface of the water, dragging a jury-rigged raft, supporting a battery, a reflecting hood, and the pound of flash powder. Martin and other assistants stayed well away in dories. Down beneath the waves, Longley would see a fish. Then, buffeted by the swell and using both his hands and knees to steady the bulky camera, he would focus and reach for the shutter, which was wired to the battery on the raft and from the battery to the powder.

When the electrical impulse from the shutter ignited the powder, the result was kaboom! The enormous explosion, equal to the light of 2,400 flashbulbs, illuminated the sea down to 15 feet (4.6 meters).

In this way?one plate at a time, for they had to repeat the whole sequence with each new shot?they stalked about the turquoise shallows, marking their progress with blinding, booming regularity. It was very dangerous; once Longley was seriously burned when a bit of the powder flashed prematurely. He was laid up for six days.

But it worked. When later developed, the plates revealed unmistakable images: a hogfish, some gray snappers, a school of French grunts, a parrotfish?beautiful images of fish seen against the rich hues and colors of the reef. They were the first successful undersea color photographs ever made, and when "First Autochromes From the Ocean Bottom" was printed alongside Longley's article, "Life on a Coral Reef," in the January 1927 issue of National Geographic, they were also the first ever published.

It remained, however, a lonely monument. No one cared to repeat the experiment, and further progress in underwater color photography had to await the advent of fast-color film a decade later. By then Longley would be dead of a brain tumor, never having completed his study of the fishes of the Dry Tortugas. Not long afterwards, Martin retired and drifted into obscurity. Their improvised success, however, had established what would become the great tradition of National Geographic underwater achievements.

Underwater color photography was born with this shot of a hogfish, photographed off the Florida Keys in the Gulf of Mexico by Dr. William Longley and National Geographic staff photographer Charles Martin in 1926. Equipped with cameras encased in waterproof housing and pounds of highly explosive magnesium flash powder for underwater illumination, the pair pioneered underwater photography.

National Geographic assistant editor Melville Bell Grosvenor made the first aerial color photograph in 1930. He used the Finlay process, then the newest way to take color photographs.

Legendary French oceanographer Jacques Cousteau examines a school of fish swimming past coral in the Indian Ocean. Together, Cousteau and photographer Marden pioneered the field of ocean exploration and photography. In 1956, Marden accompanied the legendary ocean explorer on a voyage from Toulon, France, to the Suez Canal aboard Cousteau's ship, Calypso. By journeys end, Marden had 1,200 photographs, the largest collection of underwater color photographs ever taken.

Based on the work of geophysicists Bruce Heezen and Marie Tharp, this 1968 map of the ocean floor helped bring the concept of plate tectonics to a wide audience. Tharp began plotting the depths in 1950 from soundings taken by ships in the Atlantic, but, as a woman, wasn't allowed on the ships herself. In 1978 she was awarded the Society's Hubbard Medal for her pioneering research.

George Schaller found snow leopard tracks in Pakistan he knew he was onto something special. In 1971 NG was the first to publish photographs of the ghost cat of the Himalaya. Later, National Geographic funde.

The November 1988 map of Mount Everest, which took four years to produce, relied on a high-resolution camera carried on the Columbia space shuttle and 160 overlapping aerial images taken from a Learjet flying at 40,000 feet to map 380 square miles of the region.

The famous Afghan Girl on the June1985 cover. The photo of the 12-year-old refu­gee, Sharbat Gula, taken in Pakistan, gained worldwide recognition and remains one of the magazines most iconic. Gula was located and identified 17 years later and was once again featured on the magazines cover, in April 2002.


National Geographic was an early adopter of colour photography, and has become one of the best-known outlets for high-quality photojournalism. It is widely known for the high quality of its photographs, and has produced many associated publications that assemble the best of them.

                                     oct 1888 - dec 2014

                                125 years 1464 magazines!
Article reprints
were done by the National Geographic Society and were popular to fill a demand for subsequent requests for copies of interesting subjects. These were articles that were sometimes the whole issue, sometimes one of several in an issue.  They were reprinted with only the article content and were usually bound in a paper cover style of the era. Nobody knows the full list, and everyone is happy to find a new one and add it to the list. In the early years they were probably done at the request of a notable person, an author or explorer in the article, for a hand out to popularize the subject. Later, they might have been done for an agency such as the National Parks Service for distribution at various locations.


The Beautiful Sea Voyage.

For more than a century, Norway's legendary Hurtigruten coastal ferry has served as a lifeline linking coastal towns and villages and it's now one of the most popular ways to explore Norway.

Year in, year out, one of 11 Hurtigruten ferries heads north from Bergen every night of the year, pulling into 35 ports on to Kirkenes, where it then turns around and heads back south.

The northward journey takes six days, the return journey takes 11 days and covers a distance of 5200km.

In agreeable weather (which is by no means guaranteed) the fjord and mountain scenery along the way is nothing short of spectacular.

The trip has been described as the "World's Most Beautiful Sea Voyage," with highlights including the Hanseatic League city of Bergen, the Geiranger fjord, and the Lofoten Islands.

- midnight sun
Now everybody can travel along in the worlds longest TV program! Spectacular fjords, midnight sun and genuine Norwegian scenery make the setting for a trip from Bergen to Kirkenes. You can watch the entire 134 hour long journey right here! Shortly after, Guinness Book of Records approved it as the longest continuously aired documentary in the world.- http://nrk.no/hurtigruten/index9ed2.html?lang=en

134 hour journey in 5 minutes - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yra8xYOcY3E

MS Fram - named after Fridtjof Nansen's famous expedition ship Fram, is used exclusively on cruises, around Greenland during the northern hemisphere summer and around Antarctica during the northern hemisphere winter.

National Geographics Center for Sustainable Destinations and Norwegian coastal liner Hurtigruten have signed a cooperation agreement to safeguard and enhance Hurtigrutens unique destinations along the Norwegian coast known as some of best destinations in the world.

Discover Antarctica with Hurtigruten.

In 1979, Sven Lindblad founded Special Expeditions as a division of Lindblad Travel, enabling the company to further its mission of offering innovative and educational travel expeditions that were primarily marine focused.

In 2004, Lindblad formed a multifaceted strategic alliance with National Geographic that combines the strengths of these two pioneers in global exploration with the goal of further inspiring the world through expedition travel.

Lindblad Expeditions and National Geographic have joined forces to further inspire the world through expedition travel. - Our collaboration in exploration, research, technology, and conservation provides extraordinary travel experiences and disseminates geographic knowledge around the globe.

Our fleet consists of nimble, intimately-scaled expedition ships, able to safely venture where larger cruise ships cannot, allowing us to offer authentic, up-close experiences in the planet?s wild, remote places and capitals of culture.

Today Lindblad Expeditions-National Geographic operates its own fleet of 10 ship,  offering life-changing adventures on all seven continents.

Bear approaches the Lindblad Expeditions ship National Geographic Explorer in Svalbard.

31 January 2009 The National Geographic Endeavour is about to enter a previously uncharted tunnel through the center of Elephant Island not far from Point Wild. It successfully made it through with only. Foto - Ted Stump.
Luxury Amazon Cruise

Sven Lindblad and his team continue to pioneer innovative ways to connect with the places already ,discovered, the first to introduce kayaking to the Arctic, Antarctica, and Galápagos; the only one to offer kayaking on the Upper Amazon; the first to reveal the wonders below the ocean with an unmatched undersea program; the first to offer an unparalleled photography initiative with a Lindblad-National Geographic certified photo instructor on each expedition.

Jahan - The finest ship on the Mekong River. www.expeditions.com

Since 1989 the nuclear-powered icebreakers have also been used for tourist purposes carrying passengers to the North Pole.

The NS Sibir was used for the first two tourist cruises in 1989 and 1990 (In 1990, for the first time in the history of Arctic travel made cruise flight for tourists to the North Pole).

In 1991 and 1992, the tourist trips to the North Pole were undertaken by NS Sovyetski Soyuz.

During the summer of 1993 the NS Yamal was used for three tourist expeditions in the Arctic. The NS Yamal has a separate accommodation section for tourists.

The nuclear-powered icebreaker 50 Let Pobedy (known in English as the 50 Years of Victory) contains an accommodation deck customised for tourists.

Quark Expeditions chartered the 50 Years of Victory for expeditions to the North Pole in 2008.

50 Years of Victory
completed a total of three expeditions to the North Pole in 2008 for the polar adventure company. The ship carried 128 guests in 64 cabins in five categories.

As of February 2013, Quark Expeditions was listing the 50 Years of Victory in the company fleet and offering it for a North Pole cruise.

MS Allure of the Seas is an Oasis-class cruise ship owned and operated by Royal Caribbean International.

The Oasis class are the largest passenger ships ever constructed, and Allure is 50 millimetres (2.0 in) longer than her sister ship Oasis of the Seas, though both were built to the same specifications.

Length: 362 m, beam - 60.5 m, Height: 72 m above water line (depth: 22.5 m),16 passenger decks, Speed: 22.6 knots (41.9 km/h; 26.0 mph), Capacity: 6,296 passengers. Crew - 2,384.

The ship features a two-deck dance hall, a theatre with 1,380 seats, an ice skating rink, 7 distinct "neighborhoods", and 25 dining options, including the first Starbucks coffee shop at sea. Many of the ship's interiors were extensively decorated by muralist Clarissa Parish.

Before beginning service from Port Everglades, Allure was fitted with an 80 kW solar array by BAM Energy Group which powers the shopping district.

Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd
. is a Norwegian / American global cruise company incorporated in Liberia and based in Miami, Florida. It is the world's second-largest cruise line operator, after Carnival Corporation & plc. Carnival comprises nine individual cruise line brands, operating a combined fleet of over 100 ships.


Voyage of barque Sedov Round The World. The world cruise of the Sedov barque, a legendary sailing ship that has set on  round-the-world voyage 2012-2013 on the trails of great Russian explorers.

During 394 days of the trip barque STS Sedov and participants of the World cruise 2012-2013  visited 32 ports in 20 countries, covered 42207 marine miles full of adventures and romance of unforgettable journeys under sail.

The STS Sedov  is a 4-masted steel barque that for almost 80 years was the largest traditional sailing ship in operation. Originally built as a German cargo ship, the Sedov is today a sail training vessel, training cadets. She participates regularly in the big maritime international events as a privileged host and has also been a regular participant in The Tall Ships' Races.

Sedov crossed the equator in the Indian Ocean.

Sailboat Sedov in Vladivostok.
Sedov in cyclone near Cape Horn.

The "Sedov" was entered into the "Guinness Book of Records" as the biggest sailing tall ship.

"Star Clippers" to build The World?s Biggest Square Rigger. The new vessel, yet to be named, will be the biggest and most ambitious project to date and will be launched in the second half of 2017, carrying 300 passengers, measuring 8,770 tons and powered by more than 6,350 square meters of sails.

Club Med 2 is a five-masted computer-controlled sailing ship owned and operated by Club Med and operated as a cruise ship.

The largest sailing cruise ships in the world
, carrying up to 386 passengers with a crew of 214. Length: 194 m.

RMS Queen Mary 2  is a transatlantic ocean liner.

Queen Mary 2 is Cunards flagship and the most magnificent ocean liner ever built.

She is one of the most magnificent luxury cruise ships combining Golden Age travel and modern facilities.

Over ten years have passed since Queen Mary 2 set sail for the first time. Since that Maiden Voyage in January 2004 she has sailed almost 1.5 million nautical miles, over 200 Atlantic crossings, 419 voyages and called at 177 ports in 60 countries.

Queen Mary 2 And The Endeavour Cross Paths As They Circumnavigate Australia.

Cunard Line is a British/American owned cruise line based at Carnival House in Southampton, England. The three-ship service - Queen Mary 2 ,Queen Victoria,    
Queen Elizabeth.

Best River Cruise Lines.

Ama Waterways, Avalon Waterways, Grand Circle Travel, Uniworld, Viking River Cruises.

River Cruises fleet consist of 26 river cruise vessels accommodating approximately 4,200 passengers, resulting in Viking managing the largest fleet of river cruise vessels in the world.

From its start over 30 years ago, Uniworld has expanded both its fleet and the scope of its efforts, currently operating over 500 departures annually and covering more than 20 countries.
Uniworld ships interior.

Grand Circle
Small Ship Cruises known for exceptional value and high-quality experiences in Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America.

Avalon Waterways
in 2011 introduced the Avalon Panorama, the industry's first "Suite Ship." With a focus on bringing the outdoor experience inside, two full decks of Suite Ship staterooms feature floor-to-ceiling windows that slide open to create a balcony-like exterior wall for broader views of Europe's passing landscapes.

AmaWaterways aspired to redefine the concept of river cruise, aspiring to offer amenities on par with those of 5-star hotels.

The longest rivers on Earth by continent -

Amazon - South America
Nile - Africa
Yangtze -  Asia
Mississippi - North America
Murray - Australia
Volga - Europe
Danube - Eastern Europe

The Premium Clipper Amazon Cruise ship.
Exclusive Dahabiyya Nile Cruise.

Yangtze Cruises Company, China.

Mississippi - The New Great American Steamboat Company.

PS Murray Princess.

Volga Dream Cruises.

List of cruise lines - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cruise_lines

Future cruise ships -

Some sources mention the "Francesco I", flying the flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Italy), as the first cruise ship. It was built in 1831 and sailed from Naples in early June 1833, preceded by an advertising campaign. The cruise ship was boarded by nobles, authorities, and royal princes from all over Europe. In just over three months, the ship sailed to Taormina, Catania, Syracuse, Malta, Corfu, Patras, Delphi, Zante, Athens, Smyrna, Constantinople and delighting passengers with excursions and guided tours, dancing, card tables on the deck and parties on board. However, it was restricted to the aristocracy of Europe and was not a commercial endeavour.

Prinzessin Victoria Luise
was the first ship purpose-built as a cruise ship, German passenger ship.Prinzessin Victoria Luise left on her maiden voyage on January 5, 1901 from Hamburg, stopping at Boulogne, Plymouth, and finally reaching New York on January 17.

In the competition for passengers, ocean liners added luxuries the Titanic being the most famous example such as fine dining, luxury services, and staterooms with finer appointments.

Titanic vs Oasis of the seas.


"The Crocodile Hunters"

Steve Irwin - Australian wildlife expert, television personality, and conservationist.

Paul Hogan - won a Golden Globe award for his performance as Michael "Crocodile" Dundee in "Crocodile Dundee" film (1986). The character is a crocodile hunter, hence the nickname and is modeled on Rodney Ansell. Ansell was an Australian from "the bush". He became famous in 1977 after he was stranded in extremely remote country in the Northern Territory, and the story of his survival for 56 days with limited supplies became news headlines around the world.

Crocodile Harry -  Arvids Blumentals was born in north-western Latvia in the small town of Dundaga and was the inspiration behind the Crocodile Dundee charcter played by Paul Hogan. He fought in the German Legion 15th Division, after in the French foreign legion. He was badly wounded in battle, yet his life was spared. In 1951, the young man moved to Australia in order to pursue his passion of hunting and exploration. Married a real German Baroness. He immigrated to Australia after WWII and worked as a crocodile hunter in Queensland and Northern Territory for thirteen years. He became Australias most famous Crocodile Hunter and from 1955 is reputed to have killed circa 40000 crocs. His adventures are told of in several different books, one of which being "Latvian Crocodile Hunter in Australia". He studied the Aborigines and dug for opals. As an opal miner, he built an extravagant residence in Coober Perdy,  Australia, Uderground Nest  which remains a popular tourist attraction. For him has taken about 20 documentary films.

Malcolm Douglas - was an Australian wildlife documentary film maker, and crocodile hunter. Douglas started in the 1960s as a professional crocodile hunter and farmer, but later dedicated himself to their preservation.

Dr. Adam Britton - Zoologist and crocodile specialist.

Steve Backshall - is a English naturalist, writer and television presenter.

Dr. Brady Barr - National Geographic Channel reptile expert, herpetologist. Brady is the first scientist ever to capture and study all 23 species of crocodilians in the wild.

Tim Faulkner - Australian wildlife expert Tim Faulkner has been working in the zoo and conservation industry his whole life. Since volunteering at a Sydney Wildlife Park from the age of 14, Tim has worked with some of the world?s rarest and most endangered species.

Jeff Corwin - is an American animal and nature conservationist.

Nick Baker - is an English naturalist and television presenter.

Chris Packham - is an English naturalist, nature photographer, television presenter and author.

Austin Stevens - is a South African-born herpetologist, wildlife photographer, film maker and author.

Paul Rosolie is a naturalist, explorer, speaker, author and award-winning wildlife filmmaker who has specialized in the western Amazon for nearly a decade. 

David Attenborough - is an English broadcaster and naturalist. http://explorerplanet.blogg.no/1341523978_sir_attenborough__the.html

Ben Britton - As the face of Nat Geo Wild in Australia and New Zealand. Passionate about wildlife, Britton believes strongly in conservation through education. He has appeared in a number of documentaries and on various television programs throughout his 20 years of professional experience in animal husbandry and wildlife conservation that have taken him across the world.

Félix Samuel Rodríguez de la Fuente (1928 - 1980) contributed to the popularization of science, Spanish naturalist, broadcaster, expedition guide, photographer on safaris in Africa, lecturer, writer and contributed greatly to environmental awareness in Spain. His knowledge covered areas such as falconry and ethology, emphasizing the study of wolves. Degree in medicine and self-taught in biology.


Nikolai Nikolaievich Drozdov 
is a Russian broadcaster and naturalist. Drozdov has worked on the Russian show In the World of Animals for over 30 years beginning in 1968. He has written 20 books and numerous articles, and is an ecology adviser to the UN Secretary General.

Jack Hanna - is an American zookeeper who is the Director Emeritus of the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium. He was Director of the zoo. One of the most notable animal experts in the United States. Hanna, nicknamed "Jungle Jack", is known for his khaki safari outfit, deep tan, and Southern accent.

Peter Gros - has nearly 30 years of field experience with wildlife. He also developed a rehabilitation program for birds of prey, as well as the largest captive breeding colony of ostriches in the United States. He is a licensed wildlife lecturer. An active member of the American Zoo and Aquariums Association.

Marlin Perkins - was an American zoologist best known as a host of the television program Mutual of Omaha's Wild Kingdom from 1963 to 1985.

Marty Stouffer - is the narrator and producer of the wildlife and nature documentary television program Wild America.
The "Wild America" series contained a total of 120 half-hour episodes.

Ross Allen - was an American herpetologist and writer who was based in Silver Springs, Florida for 46 years, where he established the Reptile Institute. He used it for research and education about alligators, crocodiles and snakes, also sponsoring and conducting collection expeditions. Allen founded and was first president of the International Crocodile Society. In his research with snakes, he developed many anti-venoms, including a dried form, and professionally milked venoms for poisonous snakes, which was particularly important for protecting United States forces during World War II. He mixed entertainment and science at his Institute.

Dr. Jesus Rivas
is a Venezuelan herpetologist, tropical ecologist, and television correspondent. His research interests include natural history, ethology, and conservation.

Mark Deeble and Victoria Stone
are a wildlife film-making partnership. Mark and Vicky are versatile cinematographers - both are qualified pilots and divers. Their films have achieved global recognition with over 100 international awards.

Ronis da Silveira
came to the Flooded Forest from the city of Ribeirão Preto, a center of auto manufacturing industry in the heart of Brazil. Even as a child, he was driven by an intense curiosity about the natural world. While studying science in school, Ronis began to specialize in the giant lizards of the Amazon.

Deep in Costa Rica jungle, a fisherman named Chito found a crocodile that have been shot in the eye by a cattle farmer and left for dead. Chito was able to drag the massive reptile into his boat and bought him to his house, where he stayed in his for months, nursing him back to health. Chico named the croc 'Pocho'. "I stayed by Pocho side while he was ill, sleeping next to him at night. Pocho is roughly 17 feet long, He and Pocho play, wrestle and hug on daily basis.


Edward Michael "Bear" Grylls is a British adventurer, writer and television presenter.

Legendary wildlife filmmaker Andreas Kieling.

Fast or Slow? Part 4

What is the slowest moving object on earth?

The Indian subcontinent has penetrated more than 1200 miles (1900 kilometers) beneath Eurasia. India still presses forward. As India pushes, Mount Everest continues to rise. In 1994 researchers placed a global positioning satellite (GPS) device on the South Col, a plateau below the summit. Readings suggest that Everest grows 0.1576 inches (about 4 mm) each year.

Slowest Continental Drift - The Eurasian Plate is progressing at a rate of about 21 mm/year (0.00000000665464057 m/sec).

Continental Drift

A Land in Motion.
Although we think of the land on Earth as being fixed and stable, it turns out that it is constantly moving. This movement is way too slow for us to notice, however, because it only moves between 1-6 inches per year. Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, thus appearing to drift across the ocean bed.
Movement of the plates.
Thanks to satellite remote sensing, geologists are able to measure this rate of movement. Not surprisingly, its pace befits the timescale of geologic, as opposed to human, processes: the fastest-moving plates are careening forward at a breathtaking speed of 4in. (10cm) per year. The ground beneath Americans feet (assuming they live in the continental United States, east of the Juan de Fuca) is drifting at the rate of 1.2in. (3cm) every year,which means that in a hundred years it will have shifted 10ft.(3 m).

Jakobshavn Isbrae in Greenland Ice Sheet is generally considered to be the fastest glacier (Ice stream) in the world, with speeds of up to 40 m per day. 12600 m per year (2003).

The Gulf Stream is an intense, warm ocean current in the western North Atlantic Ocean. It moves north along the coast of Florida and then turns eastward off of North Carolina, flowing northeast across the Atlantic.
Of the Atlantic seaboard of the United States, the Gulf Stream flows at a rate nearly 300 times faster than the typical flow of the Amazon River. The velocity of the current is fastest near the surface, with the maximum speed typically about 5.6 miles per hour (9 kilometers per hour). The average speed of the Gulf Stream, however, is four miles per hour (6.4 kilometers per hour).
The Gulf Stream transports nearly 4 billion cubic feet of water per second, an amount greater than that carried by all of the world's rivers combined. 

lava flowIn Hawaii the fastest lava flows we've recorded were those of the 1950 Mauna Loa eruption. These were going about 6 miles (10 kilometers) per hour through thick forest. That was the velocity of the flow front. Once the lava flows became established and good channels developed, the lava in the channels was going at more like 60 km/hour!
On January 10,1977, a lava lake at Nyiragongo drained in less than one hour. The lava erupted from fissures on the flank of the volcano and moved at speeds up to 40 miles per hour (60 km/hr). About 70 people were killed.

It took 69 years, but at last we've seen the pitch drop. One of the world's longest-running experiments climaxed when a finger-sized bulb of pitch (bitumen) separated from its parent bulk and dropped into a beaker. The pitch drop experiment was set up at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland, in 1944.

can reach speeds of 80 mph within about 5 seconds. Well a dry snow avalanche can travel at speeds of up to 225 mph with a force equaling that of a hurricane. The fastest recorded avalanche occurred in Japan and was measured to be traveling at speeds in excess of 230 m.p.h. (370.15 kilometers per hour).

The volcanic explosion of Mt. St. Helens on May 18, 1980, triggered the fastest recorded avalanche in history on the mountains north slope.  The velocity reached was 402.3km/h 250mph.

Fastest wind speed ever recorded: 484±32 km/h (301±20 mph) 3-second gust; Observed by a DOW (Doppler On Wheels) radar unit in a tornado near Oklahoma City, Oklahoma on 3 May 1999. Fastest wind speed daily average: 174 km/h (108 mph); Port Martin (Adélie Land), Antarctica, 24-hour period from 21 March 1951 to 22 March 1951.

While everyday wind waves have a wavelength of about 100 metres (330 ft) and a height of roughly 2 metres (6.6 ft).While waves generated by wind may travel anywhere from around 2 to 60 miles (3.2 to 97 km) per hour. Tsunami in the deep ocean has a much larger wavelength of up to 200 kilometres (120 mi). Tsunami waves can travel at speeds of 600 miles (970 km) per hour, but owing to the enormous wavelength the wave oscillation at any given point takes 20 or 30 minutes to complete a cycle and has an amplitude of only about 1 metre (3.3 ft). This makes tsunamis difficult to detect over deep water, where ships are unable to feel their passage.

The Iguazú Falls overflow in flood of biblical proportions

South America's Iguazu Falls Record Fastest Flow in History.  Iguazu Falls have recorded the biggest flow in history following torrential rainfall in recent days across Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. The falls are carrying 46,300 cubic meters per second. 33 times the usual water flow rate. The previous record was in 1992, when the river reached 36,000 cubic meters per second.The Iguazu Falls are fed by the Iguazu and Parana rivers. The falls are on the border of the Argentina province of Misiones and the Brazilian state of Paraná.

Fastest temperature rise: 27 °C (49 °F) in 2 minutes; Spearfish, South Dakota, 1943-01-22.

Thunder travels at the speed of sound, which generally is 1236 kilometres per hour.

Lightning actually goes at variable speeds, because it is not just light, but electron plasma moving through charged air. Its can depend on air conditions, but the typical lightning bolt moves at 224,000 mph or about 3700 miles per second. (21436462.08 kph).

However, the light you see from the lightning obviously travels at the speed of light, which is 1079252848.8 km/h.

The most typical type of glass is made with 75% silica and is called soda-lime glass. When broken, the cracks on the glass move faster than 3000 miles per hour or
4828 kilometers per hour.

The speed of a human nerve impulse varies with the type of nerve impulse the nervous system is sending. Some signals such as those for muscle position, travel at speeds up to 119m/s, 428.4 kilometers per hour. Nerve impulses such as pain signals travel slower at 0.61m/s. Touch signals travel at speeds of 76.2m/s.
Reaction Time and sprints false starts.

Athletics sprint events begin with a sequence of events:
    Gun goes off
    Sound travels from gun to ear
    ear registers sound, sends impulse to brain
    brain processes sound, sends signal to start running.
    signal is received by muscles; sprinter goes

When athletics sprint events separate athletes and world records by hundredths of a second, its worth appreciating the magnitude of the start events and particularly to consider their impact on timing accuracy.

The reaction time is the time is takes for the runner to respond to the start signal and begin leaving the starting blocks.

Once the sound has reached the athletes ears, his brain has to command muscles to respond. The conduction speed of signals in the brain is about 100 m/sec, and in the central nervous system falls to about 70 m/sec. Just getting the signal from the brain to the feet could take 0.026 seconds (assuming you are 1.8 m tall).

If the athletes ears are 2m from a speaker emitting the sound of the gun, the sound will travel at approximately 330 m/sec and hence not even arrive at his ears for 0.006 seconds. If the athlete's ear is say 20m from a cap-pistol, the sound will take 0.061 seconds to reach his ears. If you are sitting in the crowd, say 60 m from the starter, the sound won't reach you until 0.182 seconds after the gun. Most athletes will in fact be on their way by the time you hear it. Because light travels at 300 x 106m/sec and reaches you in 200 nanoseconds, you will see the athletes move noticeably before you hear the gun.

An athlete in Lane 8 is about 8.5 m from one in Lane 1. Sound will take 0.026 seconds to reach lane 8. If the starter's gun was a further 10m from lane 1, the delay would blow out to 0.052 seconds. IAAF world championships since 1995, but not the 2000 Sydney Olympics, have used silent guns to overcome this - the "bang" of the gun is sounded only in the speakers behind each starting block. You need to be careful comparing the peformance of someone in the Sydney Olympics with those at recent World Championship. Some of the difference in the second decimal digit reported for Sydney races is measurement error. Same goes for comparing recent races with pre-1995 results - up to 0.05 seconds of the last decade's improvement in the 100m sprint record could be attributable to more accurate timing rather than athlete's performance.

What are some sports with the fastest reaction times?

Boxing  ­- Muhammad Ali, in his prime, used to throw punches that clocked 40 milliseconds.

The average time taken for an image to register on the retina is 100 milliseconds.

Time required to return a table tennis ball - 150ms

Time taken by Sprinters to get off the blocks after registering the starting pistol - 100-150 ms

Fast draw
is one of the fastest sports.  Sport based on the romanticized art of the gunslingers in the American Old West, using traditional single action revolvers. A world class competitor can draw and fire a shot in under half a second. Given that the average human reaction time is around 0.2 to 0.25 seconds, the round is over before most people can react. The reaction times of the best fast draw shooters is 0.145 seconds, which means that the gun is cocked, drawn, aimed (from the hip), and fired in just over 0.06 seconds.Bob Munden - Fastest Man with a Gun Who Ever Lived. http://www.fastdraw.org

Ever wonder what made Bruce Lee so ninja? Most of us assume that it all came down to superior athletic ability and training, and a lot of it does. But a study published in the science journal Cerebral Cortex has suggested that the source of Lees force may also be somewhat neurological. Expert karate moves especially Lees famous "one-inch punch"  may start with  a specific brain structure that only the most ninja of humans possess.

The mighty one-inch punch does not rely solely on a quick arm but rather on Lees entire body. Jessica Rose, a biomechanical researcher at Stanford University, told Popular Mechanics that the force behind the fist starts with Lees equally deadly legs.When watching the one-inch punch, you can see that his leading and trailing legs straighten with a rapid, explosive knee extension, Rose says. The quick preceding leg movement allows Lee to torque his hips with more power, and the hip twist allows him to turn his upper body that much faster. By the millisecond that Lee is actually using his shoulder to throw his hand forward, the strength of multiple muscle groups is already engaged. Flicking his wrist just prior to impact may further increase the fist velocity, said Rose. Rose explained that the fact that Lee pulls his hand back immediately after impact increases the force of the punch by decreasing impact time.

Most martial art films are sped up to make fighting scenes appear fast, but not Bruce Lee's. His moves were too fast to be captured on the regular 24 frames per second film - so they had to film him at 32 fps, and run the film slower so you can see his moves. Lee was cast as Kato in The Green Hornet in 1966, but once they began filming, the shows cameraman learned that Bruces kicks and punches were actually too fast to be seen on camera. The problem was eventually solved by simply asking Lee to punch and kick slower. Its an oft-repeated fact that Lees movements were too fast for cameras to film, so they had to slow down the footage. Well, theres some truth to that. For some reason though, people seem to miss out the coolest part. When this problem first arose, Lee was on the set of the Green Hornet, where he noted that all of the fight scenes simply showed him standing still while people fell over in front of him. For some reason the shows producer didnt like the idea of a sidekick with magical mind powers, so he asked Lee to slow down, which he did, which produced a blur instead. Lee was so fast, that he had to slow down to first be seen as a blur .In fact, early footage of Lee in The Green Hornet had to be re-filmed because when it was later played back, Lees movements were so fast all of his opponents just fell over and Lee never appeared to move at all.

One of Lees most impressive feats of speed, was his ability to snatch a coin from your hand. The usual protocol would be Lee placing a coin in your hand, after which hed stand a few feet away. Hed then instruct you to close your palm as soon as you saw him move. When you saw the blur of movement that was Bruce Lee, youd snap your hand shut and feel a round object. Your smugness would only last so long though, since your next sight would be Lee smiling while holding your coin, leaving you to open your own hand and see a different coin that Lee had placed there in less than a second. This was usually the last thing most fans saw before their heads exploded out of frustration. Its no surprise that Lee died young; he clearly experienced time at twice the rate normal people do.

Bruce Lee is easily one of the single most physically fit human beings to have ever lived and we will never stop talking about how awesome he was because the day we do that is the day his ghosts comes to get us. With that in mind, today were discussing how his punches were so fast that regular people couldnt even see them. Lees speed is so legendary that most cheetahs have a photo of him on their walls, and Usain Bolt has to watch his movies in slow motion. :)

Sport stacking (also known as cup stacking or speed stacking) involves stacking specialized plastic cups in specific sequences in as little time as possible. 3-3-3 (9 cups) Sport Stacking World Record 1.424 (William Orrell).

Guinness World Records can confirm that Lucas Etter, a 14-year-old from Kentucky, US, has set a new world record for the Fastest time to solve a Rubik's Cube, becoming the first person to break the 5 second barrier for unmixing a standard 3x3x3 puzzle. Fast-fingered Lucas completed the puzzle in an astounding 4.904 sec. Lucas? achievement comes just two months after he set a new record for the fastest average time to solve a 2x2x2 Rubik's Cube, after registering a time of 1.51 seconds  at Woodmont Hills Church in Nashville, Tennessee, USA, back in September.
Heart rate, or heart pulse, is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of poundings of the heart per unit of time- typically beats per minute (bpm). The normal resting adult human heart rate ranges from 60-80 bpm. 

Pensioner, Daniel Green, 81, records 'world's slowest ever heart beat' at 26 bpm. A British pensioner has stunned doctors after he recorded what could be the worlds slowest ever heart beat - slower than the worlds top athletes, Olympians Sir Bradley Wiggins and Mo Farah at rest, 35bpm and 33bpm respectively. Usain Bolt - 33 beats per minute. Current record holder Mr Brady took the title from five-time Tour De France winner Miguel Indurian, whose resting pulse got as low as 28bpm.

Blue whales have the slowest heart rate in the animal kingdom, beating just 6 times a minute, while the Blue-throated Hummingbirds heart flutters a whopping 1260 times per minute.

Theoretically, it is believed that all visceral functions can be brought under voluntary control by prolonged yogic training, but perhaps their most fascinating claim has been the ability to stop the heart at will. http://www.sol.com.au/kor/10_02.htm

Full telemetry strip revealing the extreme tachyarrhythmia with an average ventricular rate of about 600 beats per minute. Patient experienced transient syncopy during this event.

The absolute refractory period of cardiac muscle is between 250 and 300 ms. The fastest the average human heart could safely beat without failing. That means cardiac contractions are physiologically limited to 200-240 beats per minute.However there have been several cases in the literature which have reported the heart rates of above 300 per minute. The fastest human ventricular conduction rate reported to date is a conducted tachyarrhythmia with ventricular rate of 480 beats per minute. We report telemetry recording of an extreme non-fatal tachyarrhythmia noted in a hospitalized quadriplegic male with history of atrial fibrillation where the average ventricular rate was about 600 beats per minute and was associated with a transient syncope. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3273956/

A very low heart rate is usually a sign of fitness and heart efficiency but it can also be a sign of problems with the heart's electrical system. In this case, it can cause symptoms such as dizziness and fainting.
A rough estimation of someone's maximum heart rate is using the commonly used formula of 220 minus your age in years (220-age).

"Sneezes travel at about 100 miles per hour," says Patti Wood, author of Success Signals: Understanding Body Language. She adds that a single sneeze can send 100,000 germs into the air. Coughs and sneezes are both reflexes that ultimately squeeze your chest and force out air. When you sneeze, your uvula and the soft part of the back of your throat automatically block your mouth, and all that air is funneled through small nasal passages. When you cough, your mouth isn't blocked. Fastest laboratory-tested sneeze: 103 mph. Cough? Somewhere between 60 and 70 mph. Fart? The average human farts 14 times a day, but there's no data on speed.

Which poison can kill an adult human the fastest?

Dimethylmercury. This one is a slow killer. Absorption of doses as low as 0.1ml have proven fatal; however, symptoms of poisoning start showing after months of initial exposure, which is definitely too late for any kind of treatment. In 1996, a chemistry professor at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, spilled a drop or two of the poison on her gloved hand. dimethylmercury went through the latex glove, symptoms appeared four months later and ten months later, she died.

Polonium is a radioactive poison, a slow killer with no cure. One gram of vaporised polonium can kill about 1.5 million people in just a couple of months.

Flea bites can transfer the bubonic plague and were responsible,  for its  spread in the Middle Ages. Humans bitten by infected fleas can develop a bubonic form of plague, which can develop into pneumonic plague if the bacteria reaches the lungs. Pneumonic plague is one of the most deadly infectious diseases; patients can die 24 hours after infection.

Snakes Inland Taiwans of Australia extremely neurotoxic venom can kill an adult human in as little as 45 minutes. Just a single bite from this snake contains enough venom to kill 100 human adults.

Snakes Black mambas in particular have been known to cause death in as little as 20 minutes post-envenomation.

The Australian funnel-web spiders (Atrax and Hadronyche) are the "spiders most dangerous for humans"  their venom causes local and systemic effects, including hypertension, arrhythmia, coma and death. The venom of male spiders containing a neurotoxin that only affects primates can kill a small child within 15 minutes.

The golden poison dart frog is considered one of the most toxic animals on Earth. Can kill 10 people in minutes.

Cyanide is a rapid killer: depending on the dose, death occurs within 1 to 15 minutes.

Nerve gasses Sarin is so lethal, that it has been known to kill in less than 60 seconds.

High levels Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning can kill within minutes.

Tetrodotoxin. Is roughly 100 times more poisonous than potassium cyanide.This substance is found in two marine creatures - the blue-ringed octopus and the puffer fish. However, the octopus is the most dangerous, because it purposely injects its venom, killing it in minutes. It carries enough venom to kill 26 human adults within minutes and the bites are often painless, so many victims realize they have been bitten only when paralysis sets in.
Aconite kills human being in 10-15 seconds.

Eminem said 70 words in 10 seconds, 101 words in 16 seconds!

Steven Woodmore is a British salesman and comedian known for his rapid speech articulation, being able to articulate 637 words per minute, a speed 4 times faster than the average person. Woodmore was listed by the Guinness Book of World Records as the world's fastest talker.

The top World Championship Speed Reading contestants typically read around 1000 to 2000 words per minute with approximately 50% comprehension or above. The world champion is Anne Jones with 4700 words per minute with 67% comprehension.

Much controversy is raised over this point. This is mainly because a reading comprehension level of 50% is deemed unusable by some educationalists.
Other critics have suggested that speed reading is actually skimming, not reading.

Ronald Carver, a professor of education research and psychology, claims that the fastest college graduate readers can only read about 600 words per minute, at most twice as fast as their slowest counterparts. Most of us read about a page a minute, or 250 to 300 words-per-minute.

A man has set a new world record for typing the numbers from 1 to 50 in the fastest possible time. Hind Al Mulla managed to type the numbers - complete with a full stop in between each number - in just 16.3 seconds.

There are three different words per minute (wpm) records -- for the manual typewriter, the electric typewriter, and the personal computer keyboard. On a manual typewriter, the world record is 176 wpm, and on an electric typewriter it is 216 wpm (Stella Pajunas 1946 IBM machine). In an official test in 1991, Gregory Arakelian of Virginia set the personal computer record with 158 wpm."

The rate of growth of human fingernails varies, depending on the person, the nail in question, and the time of year. As a general rule, human fingernails grow between 0.5 inches (1 cm) and 4 inches (10 cm) per year, and a number of things can influence this growth rate. Incidentally, fingernails grow approximately five times as fast as toenails

The speed of hair growth is roughly 1.25 centimeters or 0.5 inches per month, being about 15 centimeters or 6 inches per year. With age the speed of hairgrowth might slow down to as little as 0.25 cm or 0.1 inch a month.

Fast or Slow? Part 3

The first speed record ever recorded for an automobile was done on December 18, 1898. On that day Count Gaston de Chasseloup-Laubat of Paris, France, became the fastest man alive, driving his electric vehicle Jeantaud to speeds never known before or experienced by any human, that is, a man who had never ridden fast on a horse. This speed was a phenomenal 39 mph (62km/h). This auspicious event earned Count Gaston the nickname "the Electric Count."

Bloodhound SSC is a supersonic land vehicle currently in development. Its goal is to attain a 1000 miles per hour (1609 km/h) world land speed record. It is being developed and built with the intention of breaking the land speed record by 33%, the largest ever margin. 3.6 seconds time taken to do the flying mile!

Slowest Moving Vehicle
- Space Shuttle Transporter. The thirstiest vehicle in the world,consuming 568 l per mile (296 litres of diesel per kilometre), or 2.8 l per m.When fully loaded,the transporter that carries the space shuttle to its launch pad has a top speed of less the 1mph (1.6 km/h) 3500 feet per h. .. "Brake Jim, Braaaaake!!! Phew that was close. We nearly hit that guy."..

Thrust SSC holds the World Land Speed Record, set on 15 October 1997, when it achieved a speed of 1228 km/h (763 mph) and became the first car to officially break the sound barrier.


Slowest Early Car: 1769 Cugnot Steamer. Nicolas Cugnots experimental steam-powered cannon hauler was the worlds first self-propelled vehicle. Top speed a mighty 6km/h.

Fred flinstones car 7000 BC Flintmobile - 11 mph (17 km/h) (downhill !)

It was 1998. The official testing of the jet-powered truck was fixed for July 11. The Hawaiian Eagle used the power of its two jet engines to accelerate to its speed limit of 655 km/h. This record was listed in the Guinness Book of Records, giving the old fire Ford the title of the worlds fastest truck.The worlds fastest truck with two Rolls-Royce turbojet engines, each developing 5500 kgf of thrust. According to the most recent reports, at the moment, the iron record-holder can be found on the Hawaiian Islands (in the yard of a fire department) waiting for a new owner.

BROWNSBURG, IN, USA -- Paul Stender and his team from Indy Boys Inc, based in Indianapolis, fitted the engine from a Phantom fighter jet onto a trusty yellow school bus, the ?School Time Jet-Powered School Bus?, allowing it to reach up to 367mph (590.63 kilometers per hour), setting the world record for the Fastest Bus.

Top Fuel dragsters are the fastest sanctioned category of drag racers, with the fastest competitors reaching speeds of 330 mph (530 km/h) and finishing the 1000 foot (300 m) runs in 3.7 seconds, or the full quarter mile (402 m) in 4.4 seconds.
Brainerd, Minn. -- Tony "The Sarge" Schumacher , driver of the U.S. Army Dragster had the fastest run in drag racing history 13.08.2005., reaching 337.58 mph in qualifying for the Lucas Oil NHRA (the National Hot Rod Assn.) Nationals at Brainerd International Raceway. Clocked the fastest speed in NHRA history (337.58 mph) (543,28 km/h) after a period of 4.446 sec. From 0-100 in under 0.5 seconds and 0-508 km / h in 3.8 seconds. Motor runs on methanol and heights over 3000 HK.

Worlds fastest street legal cars available in the market - Hennessey Venom GT: 270 mph (435 km/h), 0-60 mph in 2.5 seconds, has a 7.0 liter LS7 Turbocharged V8 Twin Turbo V8 Engine producing 1244 hp, with a price tag of $1,000,000 and up. The Venom GT is the fastest car in the world when tested again on February 14th, 2014 at NASA runway in Florida. The track was only 3.22 miles long.

Away from the track, the Formula 1 BAR Honda team used a modified BAR 007 car, which they claim complied with FIA Formula One regulations, to set an unofficial speed record of 413 km/h (257 mph) on a one way straight line run on 6 November 2005 during a shakedown ahead of their Bonneville 400 record attempt.

On October 28, 2000, during CART qualifying at Auto Club Speedway, de Ferran set the track record for fastest lap at 241.428 mph (388.541 km/h). This stands as the fastest lap speed ever recorded at an official race meeting.

Every Formula 1 car on the grid is capable of going from 0 to 160 km/h (100 mph) and back to 0 in less than 5 seconds.
0 to 100 km/h (62 mph): 1.7 sec
0 to 200 km/h (124 mph): 3.8 sec
0 to 300 km/h (186 mph): 8.6 sec

In the Italian Grand Prix 2004, Antônio Pizzonia of the BMW WilliamsF1 team recorded a top speed of 369.9 km/h (229.8 mph).

The new world record for fastest car on ice was set by test driver Janne Laitinen who drove 331,610 km/h (206,05 mph) on the Gulf of Bothnia in Oulu, Finland. The record was broken on March 6th 2011 on a 14-kilometre ice track in freezing conditions. The world's leading winter tire manufacturer equipped the record-breaking car with Nokian Hakkapeliitta 7 studded tires (255/35R20 97 T XL).

The fastest speed achieved by a monster truck is 159.49 km/h
(99.1 mph) and was achieved by Mark Hall (USA) driving the Ram Truck brand sponsored monster truck, Raminator at the Circuit of The Americas in Austin, Texas, USA, on 15 December 2014. Mark attempted the record a total of three times, each run faster than the previous, with speeds of 157.65 km/h, 158.57 km/h and 159.49 km/h respectively with all runs breaking the previous record.

The fastest solar powered vehicle Sunswift V (eVe) Maximum speed  achieved: 132 km/h (80 mph) Theoretical: 140 km/h (87 mph).

The Guinness world record for the fastest production tank; The FV101 Scorpion is a British armoured reconnaissance vehicle recorded doing 82.23 kmh (51 mph) at the QinetiQ vehicle test track, Chertsey, Surrey, on 26 March 2002.

Sébastien Loeb, the nine-times World Rally Champion, has set a new record at the Pikes Peak International Hillclimb in a Peugeot 208 race car and set a time of 8 min. 13.878sec, comfortably beating the previous record in the "unlimited class" at Pike Peak of 9m 46.164sec. The event is nicknamed the Race to the Clouds. It takes place near Colorado Springs and has been running since 1916, making it the second oldest car race in America, after the Indy 500. Drivers compete for the best time over a 12.4-mile course, which includes 156 corners and climbs to 5000 feet.

The TOP 1 Ack Attack is a specially constructed streamliner motorcycle that broke the record for the worlds fastest motorcycle on September 25, 2010. During the Cook Motorsports Top Sped Shootout at Bonneville Speedway, Utah, the Ack Attack reached a two-way average speed of 376.363 mph, and an official one-way speed of 394.084 mph. This was the third time in four years that the 900-horse power Ack Attack had broken the motorcycle land-speed record. Rocky Robinson drove the motorcycle at all three record-breaking events.

These pictures are of the Audi LSR Superbike Concept. This concept streamliner has been designed by Marc Senger. It is expected to be in action at the 2031 Bonneville Speed Week Trials. The manufacturer seems to aiming to destroy the existing Land Speed Record for streamliners and establish a new one.

World fastest bikes is a Viper V-10 based motorcycle.Unlike other bikes it has four wheels and 500 horsepower engine. It forms a quadricycle and not motorcycle with two front and two back wheels. The two front wheel rotate independently, this movement is use the steer the bike. According to the specifications 0-60 mph times have been estimated at 1.75 seconds. This Dodge Tomahawk is motorcycle that use 10 cylinder, 90 degrees v-type engine. It can reach 350 mph (560 km/h) when its on top speed.

Suzuki Hayabusa - The world's fastest a two wheel-drive production motorcycle, with a top speed of 248 mph (397 km/h).

The G-Force Division
has always been obsessed with breaking records, and they did that again in 2013. The snowmobile (or, to be appropriate, the snow rocket) G-Force-1 broke the former 210.8 mph record on the wide open salt flats at Bonneville?s landspeed shootout, reaching a top speed of 211.5 mph. There were SCM an ISR officials there to certify the record.

Bruce Anstey is the current holder of the Isle of Man TT lap record with a time of 17 Minutes and 6.682 seconds at an average speed of 132.298 mph (212.913 km/h) set during the 2014 Superbike TT Race. The International Isle of Man TT (Tourist Trophy) Race is a motorcycle racing event held on the Isle of Man that was for many years the most prestigious motorcycle race in the world. It is the oldest motor-cycle racing circuit still in use. The course is 37.73 miles (60.72 km) in length.It is estimated that there are over 200 corners on the Isle of Man Mountain Course.

Bruce Bursford, a British sportsman broke the World record for the fastest speed on a bicycle on a treadmill at 334.6 km/h in 1996. Which is very impressive, but he wasnt contending with turbulence, road surfaces and wind resistance, because he set the record indoors on rollers. And he was on bike worth about £25,000 (approx $37,250 USD), had silk and kevlar tyres and ceramic bearings.

The result of four years of research and development, Ultimate bicycle is made from pre-pregnated carbon weave,a highly advanced material used in military and civil aircraft, Formula1 cars, high-performance boats and sports goods. Although the machine weighs only 4.9 kg, it is much stronger than a conventional steel-tube model.

To achieve the desired aerodynamic effect, the design of the Ultimate bicycle was approached by using the same software as for a jet fighter and the technology and materials used to make it were originally developed for military purposes. The Ultimate is made by a process of "cooking" under pressure in an autoclave (a type of oven) and the metal components, such as wheel axles and gear teeth, are machined from titanium and aircraft quality aluminium. The bicycle's ceramic bearings give 30% less friction than conventional bearings and its silk and kevlar tyres weigh only 85 grammes to ensure less rolling resistance.

Companies that have become involved in the project have included: Brookhouse Paxford, makers of Formula1 cars and also active in aerospace; Lola, makers of Indie cars; Jet Blades, which makes turbine blades for Rolls-Royce; and Cytec Aerospace which supplies carbon weave to aero-space, F1 and Indie teams and to Richard Noble's supersonic vehicle for challenging the world land-speed record.

In October 3, 1995 when Dutch cyclist Fred Rompelberg pedaled in the slipstream of a dragster at 167.044 mph (268,831 km/h), a record that still stands. What is even more amazing is that Fred, who holds a number of bicycle speed records, was 50 years old when he set the Absolute World Speed Record for Cycling. He still is the worlds eldest professional cyclist.

Éric Barone, a French sportsman holds the world speed record on a bicycle, both on snow and gravel. He broke speed records on a bicycle on snow in 21 April 2000, when he reaches 222 kilometres per hour (138 mph) at Les Arcs ski resort, France, using an aerodynamic prototype bicycle, helmet and clothing.
After that, his goal was to show he could be faster on gravel. He discovered the Cerro Negro volcano in Nicaragua. Its clean slopes and soft volcanic ash were ideal.

In 12 May 2002, he reached 163 kilometres per hour (101 mph) on gravel on a serial production bicycle. A few minutes later, he descended again, on a prototype bicycle. He rode 400 metres (1,300 ft), and just after the computers had registered 172 kilometres per hour (107 mph), the bike sharply entered a section of the hill with a lower gradient, causing the front bicycle fork to break off, and the bicycle and rider to crash hard and tumble down the hill at high speed. The helmet saved his life.

In September 2013 Sebastiaan Bowier achieved a speed of 133.78 kilometres per hour (83.13 mph) in a human powered vehicle on flat surface, breaking the previous world record. However, AeroVelo says its Eta bike, currently in production, is projected to blow past its Dutch rivals at a top speed of 145 km/h.

Track cycling -
Flying 200 m time trial  9.347, 77 km/h, World Cup, Mexico Aguascalientes.    
1 km time trial  56.303  François Pervis, France, 7 December 2013, World Cup, Mexico Aguascalientes.    
Hour record (UCI best human effort) 56.375 km,Chris Boardman, Great Britain, 7 September 1996, United Kingdom Manchester.

Multiple stage bicycle race -
Its definitely a little unnerving to ride in a pack when youre doing 50 mph on tires the width of Scotch Tape. Even the pros get a little skittish when speeds go north of 50 mph.In Stage 6 of the Giro de Italia the pros hit ridiculous speeds on the descent off the Hochkrimml. Saxo Banks JJ Haedo hit 117 km/h , thats 72.7 mph!

Skateboarding World Records
Mischo Erban set the new speed record on September 31st, 2010 when he reached 130.08 km/h (80.83 mph)! This record is official, as judged by the IGSA (International Gravity Sports Association). The record was set at a secret location in Colorado, USA.

Inline speed skating is the roller sport of racing on inline skates.
200m, Joseba Fernandez, Spain,15.879sec,     12 September 2012 ,Tronto (Italy)
42195 (marathon), Bart Swings, Belgium,58:10, 27 September 2014,Berlin (Germany)

Current 100 Cone ISSA World Record Holders (Clean Runs): Men Open: 19.41sec - Janis Kuzmins, Latvia (2013 August 16, Beijing), China.
500 meters Progression, Jeremy Wotherspoon, Canada,34.03 sec,9 November 2007,Salt Lake City, 52.89 km/h (32.86 mph).

On 21 February 2009, during the 2008-09 Luge World Cup season finale at Whistler Sliding Centre (Canada), german Felix Loch recorded the fastest registered speed in luge, 153.98 km/h (95.68 mph).

The current world record for skiing held by Simone Origone (Italy) 252.454 km/h (156.9 mph); Vars, France, March 31, 2014.

World Sailing Speed Record

500 metre (or "outright")- 24 Nov 2012,Vestas Sailrocket 2,Paul Larsen (Australia),Walvis Bay, Namibia at 65.45 knots (121.2 km/h).
Nautical mile record is held by Paul Larsen. On 18 November 2012 he sailed the Vestas Sailrocket 2 at 55.32 knots in Walvis Bay, Namibia.
24 Hour distance record is held by Pascal Bidégorry. On 1 August 2009 he sailed the Banque Populaire V 908nmi (1681.6 km).

Water speed record
- 317.596 mph (511.121 km/h),Spirit of Australia,  Australia Ken Warby,Blowering Dam,8 October 1978.

César Cielo
Swimming 50 m freestyle-20.91 sec (8.6km/h) César Cielo (Brazil),18 Dec 2009,Brazilian Championships,São Paulo.
100 m freestyle- 46.91 sec César Cielo,30 Jul 2009,World Championships, Rome, Italy.
American Michael Phelps is the 100m world record holder for the butterfly stroke. His best time is 49.82 seconds  thats a speed of around 7.2km/h.
Who did Eric the Eel represent when he completed the slowest 100m freestyle time in Olympic history Equatorial Guinea  Eric Moussambani swam the 100 meters in 1:52.72 (3.1km/h) at the 2000 Games in Sydney, a time that was 50 seconds slower than the next slowest competitor. Eric Moussambani Malonga swimmer from Equatorial Guinea. Nicknamed Eric the Eel.

Polar bears have some serious swimming skills that put Michael Phelps and Ryan Lochte to shame. Their huge, webbed paws are perfect for cutting through the ocean at 10 kph (6 mph/ 9,6 kmh). In addition to high speeds, polar bears on average can swim nonstop for 100 kilometers (62 miles). And while some polar bears have been recorded as far as 321 kilometers (200 miles) away from shore, the ultimate record for long-distance swimming was set in 2011. Due to melting ice, which is their natural hunting ground, a mother polar bear and her cub set out across the Beaufort Sea to find a new home. The mother bear swam 680 kilometers (426 miles) over nine days. Her cub died along the way, and when she finally reached land, shed lost 22 percent of her body weight. It was an impressive feat and a testament to polar bear awesomeness, but it was also a sad reminder of the challenges these creatures face.

170 oarsmen could propel the Trireme at a sustained speed of 6-8 kn (6.9 - 9.2mph).On a good day, with oarsmen rowing for 6-8 hours, a trireme might make 100 kilometres. Thucydides mentions a trireme travelling 300 kilometres in one day.

Viking ships
could reach speeds of between 5-10 kn. The top speed of a longship under favorable conditions was around 15 kn. One replica longship covered 223 nautical miles (413 km) in a single day.

By: Frank Vining Smith
Clipper, sailing ships Sovereign of the Seas, 1852, 258 ft, the fastest and longest ship yet built when she was launched in New York, designed and built by Donald Mackay, America's foremost clipper designer. On her maiden voyage, she sailed New York to San Francisco in 103 days. This ship achieved the fastest ever recorded speed of a sailing vessel 22 knots (41 km/h).

The sight of Parsons' steam powered yacht Turbinia moving at 34 kn. Turbinia was the first steam turbine-powered steamship. Built as an experimental vessel in 1894, and easily the fastest ship in the world at that time, Turbinia was demonstrated dramatically at the Spithead Navy Review in 1897 and set the standard for the next generation of steamships, the majority of which were turbine powered.

The fastest passenger ship.
Australian ferry builder Incat Tasmanias world first high speed dual-fuel vehicle and passenger ferry is now officially fast with a lightship speed of 58.1 knots (107.6 kilometres an hour) and a thrill for the designers of the 99 metre high speed vessel Francisco.

HMCS Bras d'Or (FHE 400) was a hydrofoil that served in the Canadian Forces from 1968 to 1971. During sea trials in 1969, the vessel exceeded 63 knots (117 km/h; 72 mph), making her the fastest unarmed warship in the world.

K-222, formerly K-162, was the only Papa ever constructed (Papa is the western name for the Soviet Unions Anchar submarine class).The first submarine constructed with a titanium hull, she was the only vessel of the Soviet Union's Project 661 Anchar nuclear-powered attack submarine design. It was laid down December 28, 1963, and commissioned on December 31, 1969, at Severodvinsk. It was assigned to the Soviet Northern Fleet for the duration of its career. It was the worlds fastest submarine, reaching a record speed of 44.7 knots (72 km/h) on trials. However, that speed came at the price of high costs during construction, and both excessive noise and significant damage to hull features when used.

A Subterrene is a vehicle that travels underground by melting its way forward. In 1964, the plant was built and produced the first Soviet atomic underground boat. Underground boat had titanium case with a pointed bow and stern diameter of 3.8 m and a length of 35 m crew consisted of 5 people. Main power plant  nuclear reactor  let her develop speed underground to 7-15 km/h.
The first tests of the subterrene in the autumn was in 1964. Underground boat showed amazing results, passing a difficult ground like a knife through butter and destroying underground bunker of imaginary enemy. Further testing continued in the Urals, in the Rostov region, and in more solid ground near the Moscow. During the tests an incident occurred and the project was canceled.

Toshiba Elevator and Buildings Systems Corporation has installed two elevators with speed of 1010m/min (60.6km/h) for TAIPEI 101 in Taiwan. These elevators are officially approved by the Guinness World Records as the fastest elevator in the world.

A skyscraper currently under construction in Guangzhou, China will house the world's fastest elevators when it is completed in 2016. Hitachi, the company building the elevators, claims that once they are finished, the elevators will offer smooth, comfortable rides despite moving at top speeds. The elevators will rocket from the Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre's first floor to its 95th in about 43 seconds. At their fastest they will reach 45 miles per hour(72 km/h). In comparison, the average elevator only moves at about 5 to 22 miles per hour.

The world's fastest metro system train is the Maglev or Transrapid, which runs by way of magnetic levitation on the Longyang Road to Pudong International Airport line of the  Shanghai Metro. The train has been known to reach speeds of up to 501 km/h (311 mph) on test drives but normally operates at speeds of around 431 km/h (268 mph).

A TGV test train set the record for the fastest wheeled train, reaching 574.8 km/h (357.2 mph) on 3 April 2007 near Le Chemin, France.

Another interesting use of magnetic levitation is the Maglev Train, a transport system where a train is levitated on a track using electromagnets in order to reduce friction. Currently the technology is being improved, and it is estimated that a Maglev train has the potential to travel at 4000 mph (6437 km/h) in an evacuated tunnel. Currently the fastest recorded speed of one of these trains is 361 mph (581 km/h), which was achieved in Japan in 02.12.03. Here is a picture of the Yamanashi Maglev Test Line in Japan ,SCMaglev MLX01 Multi AC Proto. Guinness Book of Records authenticated.

Japans magnetically levitated (maglev) train has set a new speed record, hitting 366.61mph on a test track. - 17 Apr 2015! Central Japan Railway Co.is hoping to complete the stretch of maglev track to Nagoya by 2027, reducing a journey that at present takes 90 minutes by bullet train to just 40 minutes.More than 80 per cent of the 177-mile Linear Chuo Shinkansen track will be underground. The track will be extended to Osaka by 2045 and the journey from Tokyo to Japan?s second city will take just one hour.

The Navy testing its new electromagnetic railgun at the Naval Surface Warfare Center. The railgun fires with a muzzle velocity of 2520 meters per second, 5637 mph (9071.8 km/h). An incredible high-speed camera image of the Electromagnetic Railgun firing a world-record setting 33 mega-joule shot on December 10, 2010 in Virginia. A single megajoule is roughly equivalent to a one-ton car travelling at 100mph (160km/h). Instead of relying on an explosive propellant such as gunpowder, the railgun uses a giant surge of electrical energy to fire the bullet at speeds approaching Mach 8. The gun that can destroy an enemy 100 miles away and fire bullets at eight times the speed of sound. By 2025, scientists say the technology will almost double the power of the gun, enabling it to send a bullet 200 miles in six minutes.

The HHSTT currently holds the world land speed record for
unmanned rocket sleds set in 29 April 2003, at Mach 8.6, or 9,465 feet per second (10.386 km/h with 192-pound payload and Super Roadrunner rocket motor. For more than three miles the sled was in a helium tube to reduce air friction.The Holloman High Speed Test Track is a United States Department of Defense/Air Force aerospace ground test facility located at Holloman Air Force Base in south-central New Mexico.

Horizontal axis G-force.

What is the maximum G force a human can survive? That depends on the duration thereof. If subjected to constant acceleration, I would doubt someone could stand 9 g for more than a few minutes. After a few minutes at that rate, one faints from the lack of blood to the brain, and presumably after that, some damage will occur, like heart failure, brain hemorrhage and so on. But for very short duration, very high accelerations can be supported, although some damage can result. Colonel John Paul Stapp of the US Air Force did several experiments, strapping himself to a rocket sled, and determined that 32 g was an acceleration someone could walk away from, which then became the acceleration used in the design of fighter jet seat. Stapp subjected himself to 45 g and above, but since he did that so often, ended up with damage to his eyes.

..George Nichols wasn't sure, and what he vividly remembers from that day, fifty years later, were John Stapp's eyes. He had suffered a complete red out. "When I got up to the sled I saw his eyes... Just horrible," recalls Nichols, his voice cracking with emotion. "His eyes ?were completely filled with blood."..


When the Sonic Wind had hit the water brake, it had produced 46.2 Gs of force. And for an astonishing 1.1 seconds, Stapp'd endured 25 Gs. It was the equivalent of a Mach 1.6 ejection at 40,000 feet, a jolt in excess of that experienced by a driver who crashes into a red brick wall at over 120 miles per hour. Only it had lasted perhaps nine times longer. And it had burst nearly every capillary in Stapp's eyeballs.
1954-12-10 ,Holloman Air Force Base USA,Rocket sled ,Single Rocket Proto manned by John Stapp. Fastest manned rocket-sled. Fastest manned rail vehicle. Fastest manned open-cockpit vehicle. Zero to 1,017 km/h (632 mph) and back to zero in 3,500 feet total.
John Stapp was subjected to 15 g for 0.6 seconds and a peak of 22 g during a 19 March 1954 rocket sled test. He would eventually survive a peak of more than 46 g, with more than 25 g for 1.1 seconds.
Check the space between the seat and the front axle.
The British Formula One racer David Purley crashed in 1977, his car going from 173 km/h (107 mph) to 0 in only 66 cm (two feet) (which means he hit a wall and the car structure compressed to decelerate him). He broke many bones, but survived. This deceleration of 178 G is believed to be one of the highest ever survived by a human being.

Kenny Bräck, a race car driver from Sweden. He is the winner of the 1999 Indianapolis 500 and the 1998 driving champion of the Indy Racing League. He survived one of the racing sport's biggest accidents in Fort Worth, Texas 2003, in which a deceleration of 214 G was measured. 18 months later he made a comeback at the Indy 500 and set the fastest qualifying time of the field.

Human centrifuge training
Vertical axis G-force.

Aircraft pilots sustain G-forces along the axis aligned with the spine. This causes significant variation in blood pressure along the length of the subject's body.
A typical person can handle about 5 G (meaning some people might pass out when riding a higher-G roller coaster, which in some cases exceeds this point) before losing consciousness, but through the combination of special G-suits and efforts to strain muscles - both of which act to force blood back into the brain - modern pilots can typically handle a sustained 9 G.

Escherichia coli.

Recent research carried out on extremophiles in Japan involved a variety of bacteria including Escherichia coli, Paracoccus denitrificans, Shewanella amazonensis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae being subject to conditions of extreme gravity in centrifuges. The bacteria were cultivated while being rotated in an ultracentrifuge at high speeds corresponding to 403627 G. All of the prokaryotes survived  even grew  at 2000 times Earth gravity, and P. denitrificans and E. coli thrived at the extreme of 403627 g. Paracoccus denitrificans was one of the bacteria which displayed not only survival but also robust cellular growth under these conditions of hyperacceleration which are usually only to be found in cosmic environments, such as on very massive stars or in the shock waves of supernovas. Analysis showed that the small size of prokaryotic cells is essential for successful growth under hypergravity.

Fast or Slow? Part 2

Fast or Slow? Part 1 - http://blogsoft.no/index.bd?fa=article.edit&ar_id=45736780

The Fastest Growing Plant. Bamboo can grow at a rate of 3 feet per day.

The Slowest Growing Tree.  A White Cedar located in the Great Lakes area of Canada, has only grown to less than 4 inches tall during its 155 years.

, flowering plant is one which also grows very quickly. Every 30 hours, the species can undergo an entire life cycle. If a duckweed were able to reproduce continuously at maximum efficiency, it would theoretically be able to create 4 Earth-sized masses of duckweed inside of just 4 months.

The flightless gentoo penguin, Pygoscelis papua, is probably the fastest swimming bird in the world, reaching speeds of up to 35km/h (22mph).

The fastest speed claimed and proven by any reptile is 22 mph by a frightened pacific leatherback turtle" 9.8 m/s swimming.

African Bush Elephant Loxodonta africana top speed 24.9 mph, 40.1 kilometers per hour.

The killer whale has a top speed of around 30 miles an hour but can travel at 26 mph for long periods of time. It is common for killer whale to swim more than 50 miles without stopping.

The fastest Rhinoceroses  may reach at least 50 kilometers per hour (31 mph).

The speediest dinosaurs were the ostrich mimic ornithomimids, such as Dromiceiomimus, which could probably run at speeds of up to 60 kilometres per hour.

Polar bears can run at speeds close to 65 km/h (40 mph).

65 km/h (40 mph) Common Dolphins are the fastest marine mammal.

Fastest speed for a race horse. The highest race speed recorded over two furlongs is 70.76 km/h (43.97 mph) and was achieved by Winning Brew trained by Francis Vitale (United States), at the Penn National Race Course, Grantville, Pennsylvania, United States, on 14 May 2008. Winning Brew covered the quarter-mile (402 m, 2 furlongs) in 20.57 sec. She is a 2 year old filly thoroughbred. The record for 1½ miles (2,414 m) is 60.86 km/h (37.82 mph) by 3-year-old Hawkster at Santa Anita Park, Arcadia, California, USA on 14 October 1989 with a time of 2min 22.8sec.

World's fastest dog  - In November 2013 six year old dog "Fanta" a retired Greyhound from Australian club-WRCV  ran a top speed over 81km/h (50.5 mph).  And she's just a house pet, not in 'race condition' and she never raced professionally!

The Pronghorn (American Antelope) is the fastest animal over long distances; it can run 56 km/h for 6 km (35 mph for 4 mi), 67 km/h for 1.6 km (42 mph for 1 mi), and 88.5 km/h for 8 km (55 mph for .5 mi).

Bats are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight
. Mexican free-tailed bat  96.6 km/h (60.0 mph). Tail wind is what allows bats to reach such high speeds.

The ostrich is the tallest and heaviest species of all living birds. Ostriches are superb runners that can sprint at speeds of up to 45 mph (72 km/h) on average, with a peak 60 mph (97 km/h) during short periods. This also makes the ostrich the fastest animal on two legs.

Anna's Hummingbird  98.27 km/h (61.06 mph)  The stated speed equals 385 body lengths per second, the highest known length-specific velocity attained by any vertebrate.They hover in mid-air at rapid wing flapping rates, typically around 50 times per second, but possibly as high as 200 times per second, allowing them also to fly at high speeds backwards or upside down. They cannot walk or jump on the ground, as their legs are tiny and very weak.

The fastest fish in the sea is the Black marlin, which has a recorded speed of 130 km/h (80 mph). A group at Florida?s Long Key Fishing Camp came up with a simple method for accurately measuring a fish?s swimming speed. A fish is hooked. It makes a run. You measure how much line the fish took off the spool in a certain number of seconds, and you can calculate the fish?s speed. The fastest fish in these speed trials, perhaps the fastest fish in the world, was a sailfish that took out 300 feet of line in three seconds, a velocity of 68 mph.

White-throated Needletail  - 169 km/h (105 mph)The fastest-flying bird in flapping flight.

The Peregrine Falcon is the fastest bird, and the fastest member of the animal kingdom. However, it does not hold first place when travelling in level flight. Horizontal cruising speeds of 65-110 kph ( 40-68 mph). When stooping in its hunting dive, the peregrine flies at much greater speeds, varying from 160-440 kmh (99-273 mph)!

While comparing between various classes of animals, a different unit is used, body length per second.

Avg. Length            Top speed (kph)         Body lengths/sec

Sailfish                                    340 cm                 109.4                        8.9
Cheetah                                   125 cm                 112.7                      25
Vibro cholerae bacteria                  0.0002 cm            0.00072             100
S. Giant Darner dragonfly             12.7 cm               57.9                     126
White throated needle tail             25 cm               160.9                      178
Australian tiger beetle                    1 cm                   9.01                    250

Robert John Tillyard entomologist claimed to have recorded the southern giant darner flying at nearly 60 miles per hour (97 km/h) in a rough field measurement. In general, large dragonflies like the hawkers have a maximum speed of 10-15m/s (22-34 mph) with average cruising speed of about 4.5 m/s (10 mph). Dragonflies come in many sizes. The average size of a dragonfly is from 1-4 inches in length.

The Australian tiger beetle
, genus Cicindela, subgenus Rivacindela (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae).

Cicindela eburneola, which has been recorded at 1.86 m/s (4.2 mph) or 171 body lengths per sec.
Cicindela hudsoni, can run 9.01kmh, 2.5 m/s (5.6 mph).

The South Californian mite Paratarsotomus macropalpis is a species of mite belonging to the family Anystidae, 0.7 mm long mite endemic to Southern California, which has a speed of 322 body lengths per second, ~22 cm/s or 800 m/h (0.225 metres per second (0.50 mph)). The equivalent speed for a human running as fast as this mite would be 1,300 mph (2,092 km/h). It can stand temperatures of 60 °C, which are lethal to many animals.

Horsefly is the Fastest Flying Insects in the World.

The male horsefly (Hybomitra hinei wrighti) have speeds of 145 kph (40 m/sec) or 1259 body lengths per second. when he's in pursuit of a female. Horseflies can be as large as 1 ¼ inches(3,175cm) in length.

The fastest animal on earth, relative to body length, is the flea-sized, shrimp-like critter is capable of achieving speeds of up to thousands of times its body length per second, admittedly over very short distances.

This shrimp-like critter, a copepod, the size of fleas could be the champion jumpers of the animal kingdom, scientists now reveal. After analyzing high-speed video of three species of crustaceans known as copepods, researchers found that within milliseconds, each of these wee creatures could use its leaps to achieve speeds of a thousand times its body length per second. Since copepods are typically 1-2 mm long, that amounts to roughly 2-4 miles per hour (3-6.4 kilometers per hour(1.8m/s)) or to 1800 body lengths per second, which might not sound like much. However, that would be the equivalent of a 5' 8" person reaching more than 3,800 mph with a jump 6 115.5072 kilometers per hour. These animals swim by forceful strokes with their legs. The researchers' calculations suggest that to overcome the drag of water viscosity (resistance to movement) the copepods jumping muscles are some 10 times more forceful than any seen in animals before. "Relative to their size, copepods are stronger than reported for any other animal," Kiørboe said. "And they are also faster, again relative to their size, than any other aquatic animal." Copepods apparently possess two different systems for propulsion, their feeding appendages, which also find use in regular swimming, and four sets of legs, which seem dedicated solely to escape attempts. "The escape system is geared for maximum short-term force production, while the swimming system is geared for long-term performance," Kiørboe said. Most other animals have just one propulsion system, which they normally gear toward helping them survive over the long-term if possible, he noted. Copepods might be the most abundant multicellular animals "not only in the ocean, but on Earth," Kiørboe added. This ability of theirs to escape predators with bursts of speed could be "the key to their evolutionary success," he explained. http://www.livescience.com/8247-flea-sized-creatures-fastest-jumpers.html

Rapid plant movements differ from the more common, but much slower "growth-movements" of plants, called tropism.

Rapid plant movement encompasses movement in plant structures occurring over a very short period, usually under one second.

For example, the Venus Flytrap closes its trap in about 100 milliseconds (0.1sec).

The Dogwood Bunchberry's flower opens its petals and fires pollen in less than 0.5 milliseconds(0.0005sec). The plant accelerates its launching mechanism at 2,400 times the force of gravity, or about 800 times what an astronaut might experience during liftoff. Not bad for a plant semen cannon.

the White Mulberry tree

The record is currently held by the White Mulberry tree, with flower movement taking 25 μs (0.0000249sec), moving petals to velocities in excess of half the speed of sound near the theoretical physical limits for movements in plants (nearly 400 mph - 644 km/h).

Moles are fast diggers and can tunnel at a rate of 15 feet per hour. In favorable areas, shallow tunnels can be built at a rate of 12 inches per minute, 30cm/min.

Sloths move only when necessary and even then very slowly. On the ground the maximum speed of the three-toed sloth is 2 m or 6.5 feet per minute or 0.15 mile per hour.
Giant Ai (Three-toed sloth) 0.003 mph (0.0048 km/h). The three-toed sloth is the slowest mammal on Earth, due to its lack of muscle tissue.It is so sedentary that algae grows on its furry coat. They have extra neck vertebrae that allows them to turn their heads some 270 degrees.

The Dwarf Syngnathidas swims at about 0.01 mph, 0.0027 m/s, making it the slowest fish in the world. They are some of the smallest seahorse species in the world, typically measuring less than 2 centimetres (0.79 in) in height.Pygmy seahorses are 14/27 millimetres (0.55/1.06 in) long from the tip of the tail to the end of the snout, so that their vertical height while swimming is still smaller.An adult may be as small as 13 millimetres (0.51 in) long.

The Banana Slug is said to be the slowest mollusk in the world, as its average speed is only approximately 0.000023 m/s.

The Portuguese Man-of-War Can't Swim. They have no independent means of propulsion and either drift on the currents or catch the wind with their pneumatophores. To avoid threats on the surface, they can deflate their air bags and briefly submerge.

Coral 0 m/s (0 ft/s)    The coral is one of the only animals that does not move. Estimates for coral reef growth are usually studied at the surface, where growth is not optimal. However, high rates of growth have been recorded below the surface of the water. In fact, a number of ships have sunk in areas where reef has unexpectedly grown up quickly. Usual reef growth rate estimates are 0.8 to 26 mm/year, but maximum rates of 414 mm/year have been recorded. Studies also show that if water temperatures are 5°C warmer, the growth rates double.

The Enewetak reef in the western Pacific is 1405 meters thick. According to surface growth rates, this reef would have taken many thousands of years to develop. However, according to the optimal growth rate of 414mm/year, this structure could have grown in around 3400 years, which fits into the Biblical timeline. If ocean temperatures were higher in the past, which is likely, reefs would have developed even faster. Reefs grow as fast as the temperature and light allow. They can grow and have grown much faster than the usual growth estimates suggest.

Stromatolites are layered bio-chemical accretionary structures formed in shallow water by the trapping, binding and cementation of sedimentary grains by biofilms (microbial mats) of microorganisms, especially cyanobacteria. Stromatolites are constructed by the activity of microbial communities that trap and bind sediment, but are also able to precipitate carbonate minerals. Researchers from the University of Miami, led by Pam Reid, have recently discovered the intricate way in which stromatolites are constructed by studying ones that flourish in shallow, warm seas around the Bahamas.

Bahaman stromatolites are built in four phases. Firstly, a pioneer microbial community is established which is dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria (mainly Schizothrix) that arrange themselves vertically, then wrap around grains of sand, trapping them in a mucus-like film.

These are then replaced by another microbial community containing quite different microbes, known as 'heterotrophic' bacteria. These new bacteria are basically organic sludge-degraders, similar to the type that decompose compost heaps. These bacteria form a continuous mucilaginous sheet on top of the first layer of sediment.

Next, a third group of bacteria comes to the party. These are sulphate-reducing bacteria that, by feeding on the mucus-like film left by the first community, promote the growth of aragonite crystals and the formation of a thin crust.

The fourth, and final, bacterial community to colonise the surface is dominated by spherical coccoid cyanobacteria (mainly Solentia). These are active microbes that bore into the previously crystallised aragonite crust, leaving behind tiny tunnels that become filled by new crystal growth - a sort of bacterial reinforced concrete. Rather than destroy the mats fabric, these cyanobacteria contribute to the construction of the stromatolite.

This sequence of colonisation by different types of bacterial communities is repeated thousands and thousands of times, resulting in the slow growth (0.1 to 0.5mm per year) over hundreds, or even thousands, of years.

Deep Sea Bacteria May Have Slowest Metabolism On Earth.

Bo Barker Jorgensen/Science/AAAS Researcher Hans Roy opens a core sample taken from the bottom of the Pacific Ocean. A core sample like this one contained bacteria that settled on the seafloor 86 million years ago.

Some recently discovered bacteria in the Pacific Gyre may have the slowest metabolism of any creature on earth. Almost no nutrients reach the seafloor where these bacteria live. Nutrients just dont make it to the seafloor without having been gobbled up by something else or dissolved altogether. So they basically survive on barely nothing and have been doing so for millions of years.

Deep microbes live long and slow.  http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-23855436

A diverse range of life forms exists deep below Earth's surface, scientists have concluded, but they survive at an incredibly slow pace.
Long-lived bacteria, reproducing only once every 10,000 years, have been found in rocks2.5km(1.5 mil) below the ocean floor that are as much as 100 million years old.

Microbes exist in sediments that are up to 100 million years old.

These Bugs Breed Fast.

Cabbage Aphids are the fastest reproducers of the insect world.  Each female will have approximately 41 offspring in her lifetime. During the summer (April through October) there can be as many as 16 generations of aphids. Assuming that all of the aphids lived and reproduced normally, that adds up to be 1,560,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 aphids in one season.

House Flies - If you start with one pair of houseflies, and assume that all of their offspring lives and reproduces, in 4 short months you will have 191,000,000,000,000,000,000 of the buzzing pests.

multiply at rates that could result in over a million descendants in 18 months.

Dr. Dana Krempels at the University of Miami came up with the following statistics: one female rabbit and her offspring can theoretically produce 50,653 rabbits in 3 years, 69 million in 5 years and 64 BILLION in 7 years!

One cat and her offspring have the potential to bear more than 40,000 - 120,000 cats in 7 years.

People - Possibly the modern humans story must start around 400,000 years ago in the Palaeolithic and that takes us back some 20,000 generations.

The World Total Fertility Rate - the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime was in 1950-1955 year  4.95 and  2010 - 2015 year 2.36.

A woman in India has given birth to 10 babies at the same time - but none of them survived. Anju Kushwaha, 28, from the Satna district of central Madhya Pradesh province, went into labour at just 12 weeks on 15.12.2013 and was rushed to hospital with her husband Sanjay. However during the 77mile journey the expectant mother gave birth to nine children, all of them stillborn, before arriving at the hospital.

"Child-bearing years" which in conventional international statistical usage is womens ages between 15-49.

The youngest mother on Record: Peruvian girl named Lina Medina. At 5 years of age, in 1939, she was gathered up and brought to a hospital far from her village because her family believed she had an abdominal tumor. Upon closer inspection doctors found the tiny five year old had fully developed breasts and had started having her periods when she was a mere three and a half years of age. And so, at five years of age, doctors performed a Cesarean section on her to get the baby out. Her tiny hips would have never been able to give birth otherwise.

The oldest mother was 73 years old mrs.Pace from Rose Hill, Virginia, United States (1939).

The most children produced by human females versus males. The Guinness Book of World Records confirmed by a fascinating site on human reproductive records. One of the most stunning records in history can go to one very fertile Russian woman who gave natural birth to 69 children without the use of fertility aids! The children were all born between 1725-1765. In 27 pregnancies Mrs. Valentina Vassilyeva gave birth to sixteen sets of twins, seven sets of triplets, and four sets of quadruplets. Only two of these children died in infancy, a staggering statistic by itself considering the day and age! Granted, the oldest was already forty when the youngest was born. And today this is a 63 year old Leontine Albena from Sa Antonio, Chile - 64 children.

Most offspring sired by one human male. There are reports that exceed these data (Genghis Khan and so forth), but they are less reliable; Guinness, I think, goes to some trouble to verify its records: Of course sixty-nine children by one mother is absolutely astonishing but what kind of family could a man have with no less than 500 wives? Historians think Mulai Ismail sired somewhere around 800 children sometime in his life between 1646-1727 where he ruled as the last Sharifian Emperor of Morocco.

Fast or Slow? Part 1


Running is a natural laboratory for the science of sports.
- Jon Entine

"Lightning Bolt"

Because of the Earth's rotation, Usain Bolt is also the world's slowest man. It depends upon whether he's running with or against the Earth rotation.

During his career, Usain Bolt ran ˃40 times faster than a distance of 100 m and 10 sec, ˃ 29 times ran the 200 m faster than 20 sec in the official competitions.

Usain Bolt   9.58 sec (actually 9.578)   wind   +0.9 m/s   Berlin    16 AUG 2009
Usain Bolt    9.63                                             +1.5          London    05 AUG 2012
Tyson Gay    9.68                                             +4.1         Eugene    29 JUN 2008
Usain Bolt     9.69 (unofficially 9.683)                    0.0          Beijing   16 AUG 2008
Tyson Gay    9.69                                              +2.0         Shanghai  20 SEP 2009

When Bolt set the world record in the 100-m dash in 2009, he took only 41 steps which equates to 4.28 steps per sec, and an average step length of 2.44m.; his closest competitors each took 44 steps.

Usain Bolt moves at a top speed of about 6.2 body lengths/sec. Since humans walk upright, we could measure him at body depths/sec, which makes him sound faster, about 30 body depths/sec.

˃ 93 Sprinters have broken the 10-sec barrier. http://www.alltime-athletics.com/m_100ok.htm

Runners of West African descent are the fastest humans on earth. Remarkably, the story of East African runners is the mirror image of the West African success story. While terrible at the sprints, runners from Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda and Somalia, along with a sprinkling of North and Southern Africans, regularly dominate endurance running.

Look at Kenya: with but 43 million people, this comparatively tiny country holds more than one third of top times in distance races. What explains this phenomenon?

The trends are eye opening: Athletes of African ancestry hold every major male running record, from the 100 meters to the marathon. Over the last seven Olympic mens 100-m races, all 56 finalists have been of West African descent.  Only two non-African runners, Frances Christophe Lemaire, who is white, and Australias Irish-aboriginal Patrick Johnson, have cracked the top 500 100-meter times. There are no elite Asian sprinters or, intriguingly, any from East or North Africa.

Polish athlete Marian Jerzy Woronin. His fastest time for the 100 m was 10.00 sec, recorded in 1984 in Warsaw with wind on the maximum allowable limit of 2.0 m/s. Although Woronin's official timing read as 10.00 seconds, this was rounded up from 9.992 seconds some claim this represents the first time that a Caucasian (and a European) broke the 10-second barrier in this event.He is one of only seven individuals not of West African descent to run 100 m in 10.00 s or less the others being Koji Ito of Japan (10.00 in 1998), Australian Patrick Johnson (9.93 in 2003), Namibian Frankie Fredericks (9.95 in 1991), Zimbabwean Ngonidzashe Makusha (9.97 in 2011), Zhang Peimeng (10.00 in 2013) of China and Frenchman Christophe Lemaitre (9.92 in 2011 with a wind-assisted speed of 2.0 m/s.), who is the first person of European descent to officially break the barrier.

Lemaitre is the second  white man ever to run 100 m in under 10 sec, a barrier he broke on July 9, 2010.

Usain Bolt personal record:

100 meter                           9,58 sec               0,9 m/s             Berlin, 16. august 2009                 world record

200 meter                           19,19                  -0,3 m/s              Berlin, 20. august 2009                 world record

400 meter                           45,28                                            Kingston, 5. mai 2007    

4 x 100 meter stafett            36,84                                            London, 11. august 2012              world record

Bolt realises that he has broken Michael Johnson's 200m record.
Is the first person who managed to win the sprint 100 and 200 meters in two consecutive Olympics (Beijing 2008 and London 2012).

He is also looking beyond London, to the following Games in Rio. "I will definitely try a new event for 2016," he says. "Maybe the 400m or the long jump. Id like to continue to sprint but I will want to do something new, to keep it fun."

If you take the average speed of the current world 100 m record (Bolt's 9.58 s), you get about 10.44 m/s(23.35 miles/hr, 37.58 km/hr).

Royal Mail Ship (RMS) Titanic speed- Cruising: 21 kn (39 km/h; 24 mph). Max: 24 kn (44 km/h; 28 mph).

Usain Bolt also holds the record for the fastest 100 m with a running start.Segment distance of 100m - 50m from the finish and he overcame8.70 sec . This would equal an average speed of 41.38 km/h (25.71 mph). The second fastest all-time record is that of Asafa Powell, with a run of 8.75 on the 4 x 100 m anchor leg at the Beijing Olympics. Usain Bolts record was achieved at a 150 m race in Manchester  May 17, 2009, completed in 14.35. Also as a result of this race, he broke the unofficial world record Pietro Mennea established back in 1983, which was equal to 14.80. After the race Bolt said: "I think it could run faster, now I'm ready to approximately 70%." Also, the athlete said that in the beginning he was a little slip distance. The race took place in the cold and rainy weather.

The human torch, stuntman Denni Dusesterhoeft breaks the world record for longest 'full body burn' as part of Guinness World Records Day. Dusesterhoeft ran for a distance of 120 metres during the stunt.

For Bolt, the fastest interval (60m to 80m) was run at an average speed of 44.72km/hour (27.79 mph),12.42m/s. sprinter overcame segment distance of 60 to 80 meter in 1.61 sec. In the course of the run, he overcame the first 60 meters of distance for 6.31, which is faster world record Maurice Green - 6.39.

50 m run 5.47sec (+0.9 m/s) Usain Bolt,  August 2009, World Championships, Berlin.

Agris Kazelniks (Latvia) covered a distance of 20 m carrying 300 kg on his shoulders in a time of 11.40 sec, in Milan, Italy, on 18 April 2009.Guinness record.

The Fastest Farmers walk over 20 m carrying two weights of 150 kg each is 6.71 sec and was achieved by Laurence Shahlaei. Strongmen Broke Guinness World Records in Beijing. The farmer's carry event is seen in many of the strongman competitions today. For years, it has been a common event at competitions of all levels. In this case participants held a weight of 150 kg in each hand and walked in a straight line for 20 m. Mariusz Pudzianowski does it in 25:05 at the WSM 2009 (160kg each hand for 50m). Hugo Girard (Canada) 175 kg per hand on more than 25 m in 21.39 sec. On April 2011 Zydrūnas Savickas ( 4 time World's Strongest Man champion) set a new Guinness World Record performing a 20 meter Farmer's Walk in 7.55 seconds with 150 kg (330 lb) implements in each hand.

23 August 2014. Usain Bolt  breaks 100m Indoor Record in Warsaw at Kamila Skolimowska. 9.98sec. He thus surpassed the previous record of Frankie Fredericks established in 1996 - 10.05. P.S.- I dont think this is regarded as a fully indoors race when in the official results You get an wind-reading  (-0.6) for this race. The roof was on the stadium, but between the roof and the stands it was openings so the wind could get into the stadium. Frankie Fredericks of Namibia set a World Indoor 100m best of 10.05 in 1996 on the Pirkkahalli's, Tampere.

Søgnen Jensen holds the world record in the 100 meter ski sprint, 11.56 sec, set at Bislett, Oslo, 18 March 2013.

Aries Merritt is athlete who specializes in the 110 meter hurdles, and currently holds the world record in that event with a time of 12.80 s set on September 7, 2012.

Christopher Irmscher
in September 13, 2008, in Dormagen, Germany ran the 100m hurdles wearing swim fins, in just 14.82 seconds.

Chinese man, Huang Zhongyu, 36, has practiced walking upside down 6 hours a day for three years. He can 'run' 100 m within 90 sec while upside down. 09 Nov 2012 - Guinness World Record for handstand walking.

27.05.2010 Usain Bolt spoke at competitions Golden Spike Ostrava, his goal was to beat the higher world record Michael Johnson at a distance of 300 meters. However, the record is not destined to take place, Usain overcame the distance in 30.97, while achieving higher worlds is 30.85. Not unimportant role in the unsuccessful attempt to become cold and rainy weather

How fast Bolt might have gone had he not started celebrating 20m from the finish line back in Beijing in 2008 (9.69 ,unofficially 9.683s)?  Scientists in Oslo predicted that Usain Bolt, would have run 9.60 seconds had he not celebrated prematurely in his 100m final in Beijing.  The Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics at the University of Oslo, Hans Eriksen and his colleagues also predicted a sub 9.55 s time. Considering factors such as Bolt's position, acceleration and velocity in comparison with second-place-finisher Thompson, the team estimated that Bolt could have finished in 9.55±0.04s.

International Olympic Committee president Jacques Rogge condemned his chest slapping celebration as disrespectful, but Bolt insisted he was not bragging.

In the Beijing Olympic final, where Bolts reaction time was 0.165 s for his 9.69 run, the other seven finalists reacted in 0.133, 0.134, 0.142, 0.145, 0.147, 0.165 and 0.169 s. From these stats it is clear what Bolts weakest point is: he has a very slow reaction to the gun. This is not quite the same as having a slow start. A very tall athlete, with longer limbs and larger inertia, has got more moving to do in order to rise upright from the starting blocks. If Bolt could get his reaction time down to 0.13, which is very good but not exceptional, then he would reduce his 9.58 record run to 9.56. If he could get it down to an outstanding 0.12 he is looking at 9.55 and if he responded as quickly as the rules allow, with 0.1, then 9.53is the result. And he hasnt had to run any faster! A reaction time less than 0.1 s is considered a false start.

The best athletes reaction times are usually in the range of 0.12 sec to 0.16. Tim Montgomery improved that to a near perfect 0.104 sec - and came very very close to being false-started. The only sprinter to get closer to perfection was Surin Bruny - who managed a 0.101 sec in a the 1999 WC 2nd semi-final.

In the Olympic 100 m final, Bolt broke new ground, winning in 9.69 s with a reaction time of 0.165 s. This was an improvement upon his own world record, and he was well ahead of second-place finisher Richard Thompson, who finished in 9.89 s. Not only was the record set without a favourable wind (+0.0 m/s), but he also visibly slowed down to celebrate before he finished and his shoelace was untied. Bolt's coach reported that, based upon the speed of Bolt's opening 60 m, he could have finished with a time of 9.52s.

The shoe of Usain Bolt is seen untied after winning in the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games.

Reaction time is the first key factor that has been missed in assessing Bolts future potential. What are the others? Sprinters are allowed to receive the assistance of a following wind that must not exceed 2 m/s in speed. Many world records have taken advantage of that, and the most suspicious set of world records in sprints and jumps were those set at the Mexico Olympics in 1968, where the wind gauge often seemed to record 2 m/s when a world record was broken. But this is certainly not the case in Bolts record runs. In Berlin his 9.58 s time benefited from only a modest 0.9 m/s tailwind and in Beijing there was no wind, so he has a lot more still to gain from advantageous wind conditions. Many years ago, John D. Barrow worked out how the best 100m times are changed by wind. A 2 m/s tailwind is worth about 0.11 s compared to a no-wind performance, and a 0.9 m/s tailwind 0.06 s, at a low-altitude site.

So, with the best possible legal wind assistance and reaction time, Bolts Berlin time is down from 9.53 s to 9.47s and his Beijing time becomes 9.51 s. And finally, if he were to run at a high-altitude site like Mexico City, then he could go faster still and effortlessly shave off another 0.07 s. So he could improve his 100m time to an amazing 9.4 s without needing to run any faster.

MEN'S WORLD RECORD 100 METER 10m SPLITShttp://speedendurance.com/2013/04/09/fastest-10-meter-splits/
Spikes-mags infographic titled "The Fastest 100m of all"?. They added up the best 10 meter splits (post-Beijing 2008) and came up with a hypothetical 100 meter time of 9.44 seconds.

Will he ever run the 100 meters in 5 seconds flat? "Not impossible," says one of the world's best known authorities on physiology and biomechanics. Professor Peter Weyand, of Southern Methodist University, known for his expertise in terrestrial locomotion and human and animal performance. Scientists believe man cant run faster than 30 mph, with the best at about 27mph.

Many prehistoric Australian aboriginals could have outrun world 100 and 200 meters record holder Usain Bolt in modern conditions. Detailed in a book by Australian anthropologist Peter McAllister entitled "Manthropology". An analysis of the footsteps of one of the fleet-footed aboriginals men, dubbed T8, shows he reached speeds of 37 kph/23mph on a soft, muddy lake edge. McAllister said that, with modern training, spiked shoes and rubberized tracks, aboriginal hunters might have reached speeds of 45 kph/ 28 mph ! "We can assume they are running close to their maximum if they are chasing an animal," he said."But if they can do that speed of 37 kph on very soft ground I suspect there is a strong chance they would have outdone Usain Bolt if they had all the advantages that he does. "We can tell that T8 is accelerating toward the end of his tracks." McAllister said it was probable that any number of T8's contemporaries could have run as fast.

The 100m sprint can be broken down into the start, acceleration and maximum speed phases, says athletic trainer Phil Davies. Sprinters have to lean forward and deliver maximum thrust to their feet during the start phase for the first 10 meters, and then slowly move the body upright for the next 50 meters during the acceleration phase, and then go into long-stride deceleration during the final 40 meters of the race.

The fastest land animal is the Cheetah which has a recorded speed of 96-120 km/h (60-75 mph) 28.3 m/s. Most Cheetahs run for only 60 seconds at a time. When sprinting, cheetahs spend more time in the air than on the ground. Cheetahs are the only species of cat who can't retract their claws.

Ethan Siegel, a theoretical astrophysicist at Lewis & Clark College, recently charted a graph to demonstrate that, judging by the incremental progression of the 100-meter world record over the past hundred years, Bolt appears to be operating at a level approximately thirty years beyond that of the expected capabilities of modern man.

Think about that. Were it not for this one freak athlete, it's very possible I wouldn't have seen the 9.6 threshold in the 100 meters broken until I was a grandfather. Since 1968, the world record has fallen about .005 seconds every 10 years. Bolt dropped it in .14 in just a year -- a 30-year advance.

Bolt is a sprinter from the future who traveled back to our time to run so fast it turns our brain into mush trying to comprehend an actual human blur.

Imagine if "Avatar" was released the same week as "Star Wars" back in 1977. That's what we're talking here. Asafa Powell and all the other world-class sprinters are "Star Wars." Bolt is "Avatar."

And Dr Peter Weyand, a leading physiologist at Southern Methodist University in Dallas and an expert on the science of sprinting, says "Bolt is a freak he defies the laws of biology."

The director of the Copenhagen Muscle Research Institute, Bengt Saltin, the worlds premier expert in human performance and race, has concluded that an athletes environment accounts for no more than 20-25 percent of athletic ability. The rest comes down to the roll of the genetic dice with each population group having distinct advantages. In other words, running success is in the genes.

Bolt and his Jamaican teammates are members of a tiny slice of the world population elite athletes who trace their ancestry to western and central Africa whose body types and physiology have been uniquely shaped by thousands of years of evolution to run fast.

Slowest run in the history of the World Championships.
Sogelau Tuvalu from Samoan represented his country at the 2011 World Championships in Athletics, achieving a mark of 15.66 sec in the 100 meters.
This result, the athlete achieved without adequate clothing for the demanding competition, because not even had spikes, is the worst recorded in the contemporary history of the sport.
Trevor Misipeka from American Samoa nicknamed "Trevor the Tortoise" weighing over 133 kg (293 lb), in the 2001 World Athletics Championships, held in Edmonton, Canada,  finished last in his 100m heat, recording a time of 14.28 seconds.

Japanese athlete from Tokyo holds the Guinness World Record for running 100 meters on all four limbs, setting a best time of 16.87 seconds at Olympic Park in Tokyo, November 2013. Ito spent nine years studying how animals like monkeys move.

Usain Bolt is the fastest man on Earth but scientists have now proven that if the 27-year-old sprinter went for a run on Titan he would literally be flying.
In a paper published in the Journal of Physics Special Topics students from the University of Leicester calculated that the nitrogen-rich atmosphere of Saturns largest moon would provide exactly the right conditions for Bolt to achieve take-off - if he was wearing a wingsuit.
On Titan the surface pressure is nearly 50 per cent stronger than Earths, meaning that the imbalance of pressure above and below the wings of Bolts (hypothetical) wingsuit would achieve lift relatively easily.
The team found that given the average wingsuit area (1.4 metres squared) any individual running above 11 metres per second would be able to take flight and as Bolt has been clocked at top speeds of 12.27 metres per second, he would be in the air before he hit the finish line in a 100 metre sprint.
Titan is seen transitting in front of Saturn. At 3,200 miles across it's bigger than Mercury.
However, as ever, there are a few meddlesome scientific facts that would bring any would-be human Concorde back to Earth with a bump.
Even if we were able to travel the roughly 1.4 billion kms to Titan, that nitrogen-rich atmosphere would have its downsides, namely a surface temperature of −179.2 °C. Bolt may be best described as "blazingly fast", but even he couldnt run in that heat.

Florence Griffith-Joyner
100 m
10.49     0.0       Indianapolis                        16 JUL 1988              
10.61     +1.2     Indianapolis                        17 JUL 1988
10.62     +1.0     Seoul (Olympic Stadium)     24 SEP 1988
200 m    
21.34     +1.3     Seoul (Olympic Stadium)     29 SEP 1988

In 1988, with no outstanding early season marks to indicate fitness, in the first race of the quarterfinals of the U.S. Olympic Trials, she stunned her colleagues when she sprinted 100 meters in 10.49 seconds, the world record. Shattering the world record by an incredible 0.17 seconds was one of the most phenomenal achievements in athletics history. Florence Griffith-Joyner's World Record has been the subject of a controversy due to strong suspicion of a defective anemometer measuring a tailwind lower than actually present. Although at the time of the race the wind meter at the event measured a wind speed of 0.0 meters per second (no wind), some observers who were present noted evidence of significant winds, and wind speeds of up to 7.0 m/s were measured at other times during the track meet. The previous race on the track was measured at +5.2, and while the second quarterfinal was also 0.0, the third quarterfinal was +4.9. It can be reasonable to assume a wind reading of about +4.7 m/s for Griffith-Joyner's quarter-final. The triple-jump anemometer, some 10 metres away, read 4.3 m/s, more than double the acceptable limit. Her 10.61 the following day and 10.62 at the 1988 Olympics would still make her the world record holder.

Since 1997 the International Athletics Annual of the Association of Track and Field Statisticians has listed this performance as "probably strongly wind assisted, but recognized as a world record". Besides this one race, Griffith Joyner's fastest wind-legal time in this sprint was 10.61 seconds, which would also be the unbroken world record. By now known to the world as "Flo-Jo", Griffith Joyner was the big favorite for the titles in the sprint events at the 1988 Summer Olympics. In the 100-meter final, she ran a wind-assisted +3m /sec. 10.54

Aside from whether her 1988 Olympic trial world record was wind-aided, Griffith Joyner was dogged by rumors of drug use.
In 1989, the athlete that was on top of the world, suddenly left the sport.
Since 1990, athletes have had serious health problems, there were heart attacks. Her husband, the Olympic champion in the triple jump Al Joyner, he caught using drugs unresolved. The sudden death of athletes from a heart attack at the age of 38 years only added to the suspicion.
In fact, according to CNN.com, Joyner took and passed 11 drug tests in 1988 alone. "I know exactly what people are saying about me," she said. "And it's simply not true. I don't need to use drugs. They can come and test me every week of the year if they want to. I've got nothing to hide." Prince Alexandre de Mérode, chairman of the IOC's medical commission, later said she had been singled out for particularly rigorous testing in Seoul. "Since there were rumours at the time, we performed all possible and imaginable analyses on her," he said. "We never found anything. There should not be the slightest suspicion."
Not so easy. The problem is that Flo-Jo's improvement was just too great, her times too good. Her career as a top-level 100m runner was effectively three months and eight races long, but she still has all of the top three and five of the top 10 fastest times in history. In the 14 years since 1988 the men's 100m record has been broken 15 times; not only does Griffith Joyner's time still stand, nobody has even got close to it. Only three women have run under 10.70: Griffith Joyner, the confirmed drug cheat Marion Jones and the reigning world champion Carmelita Jeter. After she set her personal best of 10.64, still 0.15 off Flo-Jo's record, in 2009, the latter said: "Honestly the first thing I heard was 'well, she's faster than Marion and a little slower than Flo-Jo, hmmmm'."
Nothing will change now. Griffith Joyner will never fail a drug test, and she will never admit to doping. No one will strip her of her record-obliterating times, but she will also never be rid of the deep and damning fog of suspicion.

Griffith Joyner's 200m record is also emphatically unbeaten. The only person to have got within 0.30 of it since is Marion Jones. Jamaica's Veronica Campbell-Brown won 200m gold in 2004 and 2008, as well as at last year's world championships. Her personal best, 21.74, is 0.4sec slower than Griffith Joyner's at Seoul. "It is beyond my reach," she has said. She believes the continued presence of Flo-Jo's times in the record books has cheapened women's athletics. "It's disappointing to not get the respect that the males do, because they are capable of breaking the record and people are excited to see them run because they know the possibility of breaking the record is close. I don't have that luxury."

Carmelita Jeter     100m   10.64sec   20 September 2009
Victory in the Shanghai Golden Grand Prix in 10.64 seconds made her the second fastest woman ever in the 100 m.

Men's running distance m/sec

100      10.44 
200      10.42   
400       9.26     
800       7.92     
1000      7.58     
1500      7.28     
2000      7.02     
3000      6.81     
5000      6.60     
10,000    6.23     
15,000    6.02     
20,000    6.02     
Half marathon    6.02     
One hour run     5.91     
25,000              5.80     
30,000              5.69     
Marathon          5.69     
90,000              4.68      
100,000            4.46      
24-hour run       3.51

World Records for Backwards Running.

100m - Roland Wegner (GER)  13.6 sec  4 August 2007, Horgau, Germany
1000m - Thomas Dold (GER) 3:18.43 min 19 July 2014, Linz, Austria
Marathon - Achim Aretz (GER) 3:42:41 hrs 31 October 2010, Frankfurt/Main, Germany
24 Hours - Yves Pol (FRA) 160 km Sept 1990, Lyon

Michael Johnson, American sprinter won four Olympic gold medals and eight World Championships gold medals.
Men's 400 m race  43.18sec     26 August 1999     World Championships     Seville, Spain -  world record time, which still remains unbeaten.
Johnson's clocking of 19.32s en route to breaking the 200 metre world record at the 1996 Olympics led some in the United States to consider him the fastest man in the world. In 1997 Johnson began appearing in Nike television advertisements in which he was billed as "World's fastest man" as a result of his 200 m world record. This was despite the fact that the 100 metres world record holder, at the time Donovan Bailey, was typically given that unofficial title.

In a much hyped competition in June 1997, he raced against Donovan Bailey in a 150-metre race at the SkyDome in Toronto. The event was unsanctioned, and its unique course consisted of 75 metres of curved track and a 75 meter straight. The race was billed as a competition for the title of "World's Fastest Man." However, Johnson failed to live up to expectations when he pulled up around the 100 meter mark after Bailey was already ahead in the race and pulling away, ostensibly having injured his hamstring. Bailey won the race and the $1.5 million prize that came with the victory, Johnson received $500,000.

David Rudisha is a Kenyan middle distance runner. He is the current Olympic champion and world record holder in the 800 metres, as well as the current Olympic Champion at the distance. Rudisha was the first person to run under 1:41.00 for the event, and he holds the three fastest, six of the eight fastest, and half of the twenty fastest times ever run in this event.
1:40.91     9 August 2012     Olympic Games     London, Great Britain


Noah Ngeny
, Kenyan athlete in 5 September 1999 on competition in Rieti set a world record at 1000 meters - 2.11,96. He broke the record of outstanding English middle-distance runner  Sebastian Coe, who was held for 18 years. Is the only man in history who ran one kilometer faster 2.12,00.

Hicham El Guerrouj , Moroccan former is the current holder of the 1500 metres, Mile (1609 m) and  2000 metres world records.                                                                                        1500 m  3:26.00   14 July 1998  Golden Gala,Rome,Italy-  he can run at just over 25km/h (17mph).                                                             Mile-3:43.13 7July1999 GoldenGala,Rome,Italy                                                                                                                                                             2000 m  4:44.79   7 September 1999   ISTAF              Berlin,Germany

The American antelope, Antilocapra americana, is the fastest land animal over a 1500m distance. It can run at 68km/h (42mph)  thats more than twice as fast!

The fastest mile in a bomb disposal suit is 8 min 29 sec and was achieved by Zoltán Mészáros (Hungary) in Budapest, Hungary, on 27 March 2014.

Daniel Komen
a Kenyan middle- and long-distance runner.                                                     3000 Meters    7:20.67  1 September 1996   Rieti;                                                                    2 Miles  7:58.61    19 July 1997      Hechtel

Kenenisa Bekele
is an Ethiopian long-distance runner, who holds the world record and Olympic record in both the 5,000 metres and 10,000 metres events. Capable of accelerating to the finish in the last 400 meters. He can pass at a distance of 10 000 meters last lap faster 54 seconds (Track standart length 400 m).                                                                                                  5000m12:37.35FannyBlankersKoen,GamesHengelo,Netherlands                                                                                                                                               10,000 m 26:17.53 Memorial Van Damme    Brussels, Belgium

Leonard Komon
Kenyan long-distance runner and the current world record holder in the 15 km races. 41:13 21 November 2010 Zevenheuvelenloop Nijmegen, Netherlands.

Haile Gebrselassie
, Ethiopian long-distance running athlete won two Olympic gold medals over 10,000 metres and four World Championship titles in the event. He won the Berlin Marathon four times consecutively and also had three straight wins at the Dubai Marathon. Further to this, he won four world titles indoors and was the 2001 World Half Marathon Champion.                                                                                                                                                                                                                        He broke 61 Ethiopian national records ranging from 800 metres to the marathon, set 27 world records, and is widely considered one of the greatest distance runners in history.

In September 2008, at the age of 35, he won the Berlin Marathon with a world record time of 2:03:59, breaking his own world record by 27 seconds. The record stood for three years. Since he was over the age of 35, that mark still stands as the Masters Age group world record.                                                                                         

20,000 m         56:25.98     27 June 2007      Golden Spike Ostrava, Czech Republic                    One hour        21,285 m    27 June 2007      Golden Spike Ostrava, Czech Republic

On September 29, 2007 Vladimir Kanaykin set a new world record for the 20 km race walk at the IAAF Race Walking Challenge, in Saransk, Russia. He walked a time of 1 hour, 17 min, 16 sec.

Moses Mosop
     30,000 m    1:26:47.4   3 June 2011   Prefontaine Classic,   Eugene, United States

Dennis Kimetto                                                                                                                     25km record - 1:11:186
May2012 Berlin,Germany 

The first man to run marathon under 2:03 - Kimetto broke the world record at the Berlin Marathon with 2:02:57           

His 5k splits were recorded as:

         14:42, 14:42, 14:46, 14:26,                 14:32,     14:30,     14:09,     14:42.                          км            5       10       15      20    21,0975     25          30           35         40         42,195       time   14.42  29.24   44.10 58.36     1:01.45  1:13.08   1:27.38   1:41.47   1:56.29   2:02.57       time at halfway:                                61:45   split for his second half marathon:        61:12

Kimetto's average pace       per mile: 4:41.5    per 5K: 14:34.9    for one lap of a standard outdoor track: 69.93 sec


Number of times the men's world record has been broken since 2002: 6
Number of those new records set in Berlin: 6

Why so many marathon records are broken in Berlin?

The director, Mark Milde says there are a few key factors that make it an ideal race for breaking records.One is that "Berlin is a flat course with few corners". It starts at 38m above sea level, never gets higher than 53m or lower than 37m.

Graph comparing the undulations of the Berlin, London and Boston courses
In comparison, London undulates more, twists and turns more frequently, plus runners often face a head wind when running along the River Thames past Embankment. And Boston's finish line is so much lower than its start that it is ineligible for world record attempts. Also, competitors in Berlin "run on asphalt and compared to concrete this seems to be helpful. We hear from runners that they have less problems with their joints," says Milde.

"And in late September we have running conditions that are close to ideal. There is not much wind and the temperatures are in the range of 12C to 18C." In fact the average temperature for late September when the marathon is run is 15C - which falls inside the 10C to 16C window that experts agree is the optimum temperature for a fast race.

Marathon runner Lloyd Scott completed the course in a then record slowest time of 5 days, 8 hours, 29 min and 46 sec wearing this 140lb (63.5kg) deep-sea diving suit.

Army loaded march or foot march (more than 32 km is a forced march) -

In the Roman Army - the "faster step" -35.544 km or 22.086 miles with 20.5 kg in 9.5 hours.
In the British Armed Forces - advanced tests - 20km or 12.43 miles with 30kg in 3.5 hours.
In the French Foreign Legion - the "Combatant's Course"- 25 km or 15.534 miles in 3 hours with a load of 18 kg.
In the United States - the Expert Infantryman Badge - 12 miles 3 hours, load up to 70lbs (31.75kg).
British Special Forces - 12km run with 16kg, <60min.; 30km- 10hours- 34kg backpack in the mountainous terrain; 50km with 22kg backpack; 40 miles(64km) without stopping with 60lb(27kg) rucksack;12km run with a load 70 kg.

Roman legions completed more than one-and-a-half marathons a day carrying more than half their body weight in equipment.
Forced march in 1914 year - 60 fully equipped english officers completing the 52.5 mile march in 14 hours 23 minutes.
In 1818, a British (native) artillery troop in India covered 95 miles in 36 hours.

A British-led Indian force of horse and foot troops in 1857 traveled 580 miles in 22 marching days during hot weather.

The longest march, according to the Guinness Book of World Records,was the "Long March" of the Chinese Communists,1934-1935, which covered 6000 miles in 268 days of movement.90,000troops started but less than 22,000 finished the trek.

Takahiro Sunada, Japan  100 km  6:13:33
21 June 1998 Yūbetsu, Japan. The 100 kilometers is recognized as an official world record event by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), the world governing body of track and field.

The traditional story relates that Pheidippides (530 BC- 490 BC), an Athenian "professional-running courier" was sent to Sparta to request help when the Persians landed at Marathon, Greece. He ran about 240 km (150 mi) in 2 days. He then ran the 40 km (25 mi) from the battlefield near Marathon to Athens to announce the Greek victory over Persia in the Battle of Marathon with the word  "We have won", to then collapse and die.

"Forest Gump" film.
An ultramarathon, also called ultra distance, is  running  longer than the traditional marathon length.
There are two types of ultramarathon events: those that cover a specified distance, and events that take place during specified time (with the winner covering the most distance in that time).

Tom Hanks
The most common ultramarathon distances are :
50 kilometres (31.069 mi),
100 kilometres (62.137 mi),
50 miles (80.4672 km),
and 100 miles (160.9344 km).
Other distances/times include double marathons,
Timed events range from 6, 12, 24 to 48 hours races,
and multiday races of 1,000 miles (1,600 km) or even longer.
Timed events range from 3, 6 to 10 days races (known as multi-day events).

The Self-Transcendence 3100 mile
(4989 km).race is the world's longest certified footrace.
The runners have 52 days in which to complete the distance - an average of 60.78 miles (97.82 km) every day. The Worldrecord is held by Madhupran Wolfgang Schwerk who broke his own time of 42 days 13:24:03 set in 2002 with a new record of 41 days 08:16:29 in July 2006. Thereby he reached also 74 new Best Times from 1400 Miles to 5000 km.

One of the earliest multiple day races was the Trans-American footrace (then called the Bunion Derby), which took place in 1928. It began in Los Angeles and finished in New York City, covering a distance of 3,423 miles in 84 days. Coast to coast races have taken place several times since then. In 1992 a modern version of the Trans-America footrace began. Covering 2,935.8 miles from Huntington Beach, CA to New York City, the winner, David Warady, completed the distance in 521 hours, 35 minutes and 37 seconds over 64 days.

The 4 Deserts Race Series is an annual series of four 250 km (155 miles) races across desert conditions in various parts of the world.The inaugural race, the Gobi March, was run in China in 2003. Over the next three years a new race was added to series each season. In 2004 it was the Atacama Crossing (Chile) and in 2005 it was the Sahara Race (Egypt), until in 2006 all 4 Deserts events were raced in one year with The Last Desert Antarctica being the ultimate event in the series.

Robert Garside, calling himself The Runningman, is a British runner who is credited by Guinness World Records as the first person to run around the world. Garside began his record-setting run following two aborted attempts from Cape Town, South Africa and London, England. Garside set off from New Delhi, India on 20 October 1997, completing his run back at the same point on 13 June 2003.

Garside stated that his aim was to run for his own satisfaction as well as the record, therefore he set about running each continent the longest way possible, rather than the easiest way to gain the record. His run covered around 40,000 miles across 6 continents and 29 countries.

Fast or Slow? Part 2 - http://blogsoft.no/index.bd?fa=article.edit&ar_id=45739564

News: deepest, highest, strongest, fastest!

On 24.10.2014, a senior vice president at Google Alan Eustace achieved the highest parachute jump in history, jumping from  41.419m (135,890 feet). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AsftfzBrVko

Kenyan runner Dennis Kimetto set a new world record for the men's marathon in Berlin on 28.09.2014. Dennis Kimetto covered the 42.2km (26.22 mile) course in 2 hours 2 minutes and 57 seconds. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WI5LxRHZDG0

The deepest ever - 332.35 m (1,090 ft 4.5 in)  for the deepest scuba dive (male) Guinness World Record set on 18.09.2014 in Dahab, Egypt, Red Sea by Ahmed Gabr. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FO0K27I0MZc

A new Speed climbing World Record was set in the Speed Men Finals at World Championships 12.09.14 in Gijon: the fastest men on earth, and Speed World Champion, is the Ukraine Danylo Boldyrev, with an astonishing 5.60sec. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n4n6xfu8VDU

Icelandic strongman and Europe's strongest man Benni Magnusson sets in 9.08.2014 a new deadlift world record of 461kg (1016.33 lbs). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DJYMhvKC4P0

Eddie Hall -

462kg - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w95Yi9HcQ7s

463kg - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x5-mfOXF0i0

464kg - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=39nvYNMyLwk


Oldest known pieces of Earth.

The first geologic eon of Earth began with the formation of the Earth about 4.5 billion years ago and ended 3800 million years ago.
This era was known as the "Hadean" period, named after Hades, the Greek god of the underworld.

Much of the evidence from the oldest period of the Earths history, the Hadean era has been destroyed by erosion, burial, and modifications of the rocks as they were heated and compressed at depth. Yet clues can be found in the durable mineral zircon.

Zircons are one of the toughest minerals on the planet. They formed 165 million years after the Earth's formation and have survived many eras that the Earth underwent. They are known as "the most reliable natural chronometer" available to look at early Earth history.

A fragment of Zircon discovered on a sheep ranch in Western Australia is said to be the "oldest known piece of Earth" and is about 4.4 billion years old. The oldest material of terrestrial was extracted from a rock outcrop in Australia's Jack Hills region in 2001.
The Jack Hills rocks formed only about 160 million years after the formation of the solar system which is surprisingly early.

Narryer Gneiss Terrane
In the study, the researchers sought to confirm, or disprove, earlier findings that had made the Jack Hills (Narryer Gneiss Terrane) look like the oldest place on Earth. Radioactive dating done in a 2001 study had first suggested the hills are about 4.4 billion years old. (A belt of Nuvvuagittuq greenstone blocks in Canada's Hudson Bay region is thought to be a similar age.)

Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt
The zircon crystals analysed by the researchers in the Nature Geoscience journal study point to Earth's earliest crust cooling from a planet-wide lava ocean. The lava ocean was likely born in the astronomical collision that created the moon.

The crystals appear to contradict the conventional notion that the first 500 million years of Earths history the Hadean Eon were a continuously violent and chaotic time, when endless volcanism and continual meteor bombardment kept a global magma ocean simmering across the surface of the newly formed planet.

The Earth was assembled from a lot of heterogeneous material from the solar system, John W. Valley, a geochemist whose studies of zircons, explains, noting that the early Earth experienced intense bombardment by meteors, including a collision with a Mars-sized object about 4.5 billion years ago that formed our moon, and melted and homogenized the Earth. Our samples formed after the magma oceans cooled and prove that these events were very early.

The oldest dated zircon crystals date from about 4,000 million years ago  around 500 million years after the hypothesized time of the Earth's formation.This confirms our view of how the Earth cooled and became habitable, says Valley,  the oldest known terrestrial materials, have helped portray how the Earths crust formed during the first geologic eon of the planet. This may also help us understand how other habitable planets would form.

Trace elements in the oldest zircons from Australia's Jack Hills range suggest they came from water-rich, granite-like rocks such as granodiorite or tonalite, other studies have reported. This discovery supports the notion of a "cooler Earth." Scientists believe that the Earth was capable of sustaining life earlier than previously thought because temperatures were low enough to sustain oceans.

"One of the things that we're really interested in is: when did the Earth first become habitable for life? When did it cool off enough that life might have emerged?" Valley said in a interview.
We have no evidence that life existed then. We have no evidence that it didn't. But there is no reason why life could not have existed on Earth 4.3 billion years ago," he added.

Researchers from the University of Wisconsin used two different age-determining techniques to get the accurate age of the tiny zircon crystal. First, they used a widely accepted technique based on radioactive decay of uranium to lead in the mineral sample. The results revealed that the gem was 4.4 billion years old.
Zircon usually contains a small amount of the radioactive element uranium, and its age can be determined by measuring how much of the uranium has transformed to lead.
To confirm the findings, they turned to a second novel technique known as atom-probe tomography, where each atom of lead in the crystal was identified and then measured for its mass. The findings of the second technique confirmed that the zircon fragment was indeed that old.

Zircon timeline
The oldest meteorite of the planet Mars.

A meteorite discovered in the Sahara desert has been identified as the oldest piece of the planet Mars ever found on Earth.
The so-called "Black Beauty" rock,  the meteorite - whose official name is NWA (North West Africa) 7553  the age is dating from 4.4 billion years.
There are only around 100 Martian meteorites in collections around the world, according to BBC News, but almost all of them are much younger than Black Beauty , dating from around 150 to 600 million years ago.
Scientists were able to analyse the different minerals encased in the 7553 fragment , one of five found in the desert  and said it showed the volatile nature of Mars surface.
It contains zircons for which we measured an age of 4,428 ± 25 million years,  ago, Prof Humayan wrote. His research, based at Florida State University and published in the journal Nature, found that parts of the meteorite came from different points in the development of Mars.
He explained: The crust of Mars must have differentiated really quickly, rather than gradually over time. There was a big volcanic episode all over the surface, which then crusted up, and after that the volcanism dropped dramatically.
When it did this it also must have out-gassed water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and other gases to produce a primordial atmosphere... and also a primordial ocean.
He added: This is a very exciting period of time - if there were to be life on Mars, it would have originated at this particular time.
Scientists will now conduct a study to test the different meteorite fragments for signs that they ever came into contact with life. (21 November 2013)

The oldest known meteorite and material in the solar system.

The Canyon Diablo meteorites include the many fragments of the asteroid that created the Barringer Crater (Meteor Crater), Arizona, USA. Meteorites have been found around the crater.

The asteroid fell about 50,000 years ago. The meteorites have been known and collected since the mid-19th century and were known and used by pre-historic Native Americans.In 1953, Clair Cameron Patterson measured ratios of the lead isotopes in samples of the meteorite. The result permitted a refinement of the estimate of the age of the Earth to 4.480 - 4.463 billion years.

Northern Arizona University's NWA 2364 meteorihttp://blogsoft.no/index.bd?fa=article.edit&ar_id=45672381te, which ASU scientists recently declared as the oldest known material in the solar system.

The meteorite which NAU purchased in Morocco in 2004 and is known as Northwest Africa 2364 is 4.568 billion years old - "older than dirt"!

Oldest rock on Moon.

The youngest Moon rocks are virtually as old as the oldest Earth rocks. The earliest processes and events that probably affected both planetary bodies can now only be found on the Moon.

Moon rock ages range from about 3.2 billion years in the maria (dark, low basins) to nearly 4.6 billion years in the terrae (light, rugged highlands). Active geologic forces, including plate tectonics and erosion, continuously repave the oldest surfaces on Earth whereas old surfaces persist with little disturbance on the Moon.

Very early in the Moon's history, much of its outer region was molten, a stage in lunar history known as the magma ocean. As the magma ocean cooled and solidified, a type of rock known as anorthosite which consists mostly of the mineral plagioclase floated to the surface. Small fragments of anorthosite were found beginning on Apollo 11, and a larger sample was found on Apollo 15. Two anorthosite samples collected on Apollo 16 are much larger than those found on any other Apollo mission. During the Apollo missions to the Moon (1969-1972), astronauts collected 2,414 samples of Moon rocks, weighing 383 kilograms (842 pounds).The one shown above formed between 4.44 and 4.51 billion years ago. It is one of the oldest rocks collected during the Apollo program and is nearly as old as the Moon itself.

FAN 60025
August 2011. Analysis of a piece of lunar rock brought back to Earth by the Apollo 16 mission in 1972 has shown that the Moon may be much younger than previously believed. This is concluded in new research conducted by an international team of scientists that includes James Connelly from the Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen. Their work has just been published in Nature.

The team analysed the isotopes of the elements lead and neodymium to place the age of a sample of a FAN 60025 at 4.36 billion years. This figure is significantly younger than earlier estimates of the Moons age that range to nearly as old as the age of the solar system itself at 4.567 billion years. The new, younger age obtained for the oldest lunar crust is similar to ages obtained for the oldest terrestrial minerals - zircons from Western Australia - suggesting that the oldest crust on both Earth and the Moon formed at approximately the same time. This study is the first in which a single sample of FAN yielded consistent ages from multiple isotope dating techniques.

What could be more different than a fragrant rose and a cold chunk of granite?

Early Earth became an engine of mineral production, thanks to the water on its surface, the heat in its deeper layers, and the rock-recycling system of plate tectonics. These, and other physical and chemical processes, combined to form 1,500 different minerals. Thats a sizeable sum to be sure, but today we know of 5,000 different minerals species. What created the remaining 3,500 minerals, which comprise the vast majority of mineral species? The inevitable conclusion one that has shaken the mineralogical community to its core is that most minerals (two out of three, in fact) arise as a result of biological processes.

Theorists gradually brought minerals such as quartz-rich beach sand, shiny iron pyrite and fine-grained clay into the story. They said these minerals helped to select, concentrate and assemble small molecules into bigger molecules, while protecting the more delicate bio-bits from the ravages of Earths hostile early environment. Now, almost everyone in the field agrees that mineral variety is essential to biogenesis, which means life and rocks have been together since the very beginning.

Global distribution of Archean rocks in modern continents. Known (red), suspected (pink).

The Banded Iron Formations (BIFs) are a series of stratigraphic rock units deposited at different times in different environments. They contain higher-than-usual amounts of iron (Fe). These deposits are all Precambrian in age, and the ones in the image in particular are Archean era (older than 2.5 billion years ago).

Banded iron formation, Soudan Underground Mine State Park, Minnesota.

The current explanation for the abundance of Fe in these layers, albeit not totally accepted by the scientific community, is that Fe existed in solution in Archean ocean waters in its reduced form. Sudden increase in the amount of available oxygen, caused by the beginning of photosynthetic life in the form of stromatolite-building cyanobacteria, would have caused the reduced Fe to oxidize to hematite (and possibly magnetite). There is evidence in the fossil and rock records of an increase in atmospheric oxygen right after the last deposited BIFs. BIFs were never to form again. At the very beginning, before any BIFs were ever deposited, the most common form of Fe on Earth's surface was pyrite. Pyrite today would not stand a chance of preservation in subaerial environment because of the abundance of oxygen in the atmosphere.

Banded iron rock, mineral layers compressed in vibrant colours found in the Hammersley Range, Western Australia.

Iron formations must be at least 15% iron in composition, just like ironstones and all iron-rich sedimentary rocks. However, iron formations are mainly Precambrian in age which means that they are 4600 to 590 million years old.

When the 18th-century Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus first distinguished animals, vegetables, and minerals, Minerals are usually defined as naturally occurring inorganic substances that combine to form rocks. Until recently, many geologists assumed that most rocks had been around since the origins of Earth, well before life formed on this planet. Even biominerals such as calcite and apatite, which organisms secrete to form shells, teeth and bones, are merely recent examples of very ancient and rather common non-biological materials.

Life is thought to have arisen in the Archaean aeon, some 4 billion years ago, when Earth was blanketed by a thick noxious atmosphere tinged orange with hydrocarbon smog. The seas and the land were both barren then, and the raw materials of life  water, air, rocks  were bathed in lethal ultraviolet radiation. The planets surface was marred by a steady stream of violent volcanic eruptions, asteroid bombardments and icy comet impacts. How could that alien, volcanic, comet-battered globe produce living molecules? The story is that minerals  quartz, pyrite, clays, and the like  must have provided the safe, shielded environments that spawned life. But for this theory to be true, those critical life-triggering minerals had to have been present when life first formed.

Earths near-surface mineralogy has changed radically in both diversity and distribution during its 4.5 billion year history. And we now know what caused these radical changes: basic chemistry, physics and, most surprisingly, biology. We also know that these general principles apply to the trillions upon trillions of rocky planets and moons that exist throughout the cosmos. This new evolutionary perspective is detailed enough to let us travel back in time, to the formation of the first minerals in the universe. We know that no minerals could have formed right after the Big Bang, for the universe was much too hot, and there werent enough mineral-forming elements around. Almost nothing except the gaseous elements hydrogen and helium could have existed then. Nor did any minerals form inside the first stars, which were too hot to support solid crystals.

The first stages of Earths mineral evolution diversification beyond the dozen ur-minerals (including the carbon-bearing phases diamond, lonsdaleite, graphite, moissanite, and cohenite began approximately 4.57 billion years ago and are preserved in the rich record of meteorites. These diverse objects reveal mineral-forming processes that occurred in the solar nebula prior to the formation of Earth and other planets.

For Earths first half-billion years or so, life played no role in mineral evolution, for there were no living cells on its harsh and desolate surface. The earliest pulse of mineral novelty occurred before planets, when the primitive Sun began to flare, sending plumes of refining fire outward into the nebular disk of dust and gas spinning around it. The original 12 ur-minerals melted and remixed to generate 60 species, followed by another 100, which emerged when gravity clumped dust and gas into larger and larger planetesimals. Heat, pressure, and water transformed crystals into new forms, and collisions between rocks produced impact shocks that led to even more mineralogical novelty.

But when those first stars exploded a few million years after the universes birth, their expanding remains cooled, allowing carbon atoms within them to condense into diamonds, and a few other kinds of minute crystals, which are called the ur-minerals. Perhaps a dozen mineral species emerged, including graphite, corundum, and moissanite (silicon carbide). These ancient species of crystals still fall to Earth today in the form of microscopic interstellar dust, left over from the great nebula that formed the Sun and planets more than 4.5 billion years ago.

The first mineral was diamond (possibly co-precipitated with lonsdaleite), which condensed in carbon-rich zones at temperatures below about 3700 °C. Next came graphite at a slightly cooler 3200 °C. Diamond and graphite were the first of the ur-minerals the dozen or so mineral species that formed prior to the first stellar nebulae, planets, and moons. In addition to diamond and graphite there are at least two other carbon-bearing ur-minerals, the iron and silicon carbides cohenite and moissanite, as well as possible
nano-particles of titanium, iron, molybdenum, and zirconium carbides.

The driving question behind mineral evolution is how vast quantities of dust, composed of the original dozen ur-minerals, were processed and reworked to yield the thousands of different minerals on Earth today. All of Earths chemical richness  what we enjoy today as iPhones, skateboards, automobiles, flat-screen TVs, and countless other toys  was sequestered into those primordial dust grains, but in trace quantities. All but a dozen of the 80 or so chemical elements that make up planets were impossibly dilute, constituting only a few atoms in a million, or a billion, or even less. Barring some remarkably efficient concentration processes, the chances of those rare chemical elements clumping together to form separate, distinct mineral species were vanishingly small. To have the mineral diversity we enjoy today, the rocks that make up Earth needed to experience a number of interventions.The inevitable conclusion  one that has shaken the mineralogical community to its core  is that most minerals arise as a result of biological processes.

As Earth grew larger, dense iron-nickel metal sank through a mantle of rocks to form the planets core. Around this great bulk was an outer crust made primarily of black volcanic basalt. Having sorted itself into onion-like layers, Earth boasted a near-surface environment relatively concentrated in dozens of rare elements. Disproportionate amounts of the lightest mineral-forming elements hydrogen, lithium, beryllium and boron were peppered throughout this outer shell. Metal ores of copper, silver, zinc and gold; radioactive elements such as uranium, thorium and radium; key elements of life, including phosphorus, sulphur, nitrogen and carbon  all enjoyed unusual concentrations in Earths evolving crust.

Early Earth became an engine of mineral production, thanks to the water on its surface, the heat in its deeper layers, and the rock-recycling system of plate tectonics. These, and other physical and chemical processes, combined to form 1500 different minerals. Thats a sizeable sum to be sure, but today we know of 5000 different minerals species. What created the remaining 3500 minerals, which comprise the vast majority of mineral species? The inevitable conclusion  one that has shaken the mineralogical community to its core is that most minerals (two out of three, in fact) arise as a result of biological processes.

The earliest microbes were chemolithoautotrophs  a fancy name for cells that get their chemical energy from minerals, in order to make their own biomolecules from scratch. Microbes accelerated the breakdown of unstable minerals such as iron, sulphur or carbon, earning a tiny energetic boost in the process.

The rock-eating microbes transformed the Earths surface, but not nearly as much as the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), the single most dramatic event in Earths mineral evolution. Evidence from chemical and physical changes in Earths rocks places the beginning of the GOE at about 2.4 billion years ago. Thats when photosynthetic microorganisms that used the Sun for energy and manufactured oxygen as a by-product began to flourish along coastlines that were rich in eroded mineral nutrients. Oxygen is a dangerous, corrosive gas, which mounts a chemical attack that alters most rocks and minerals, transforming them into new oxidised forms such as rust. More oxygen in the ancient atmosphere meant more erosion, leading to more nutrients, and even more oxygen-producing algae. This feedback loop has continued to play out in near-surface environments for more than 2 billion years, creating more and more mineral diversity.

Take copper, for instance. Before the GOE, its hard to identify more than about a score of likely copper-bearing minerals. But, today, more than 600 different copper minerals have been catalogued, including all the gorgeous blue and green ones such as azurite, malachite and turquoise. Hundreds of minerals combine copper, oxygen and other elements in ways that could not have happened before the evolution of photosynthesis. Life is likewise responsible for more than 90 per cent of the 200-plus known minerals of uranium, as well as the great majority of minerals of nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, lead, arsenic, carbon, sulphur and numerous other elements that readily react with oxygen. Only a living planet could display such mineralogical fecundity.

Life arose from minerals; then minerals arose from life. The geosphere and biosphere have become complexly intertwined, with numerous feedback loops driving myriad critical natural processes in ways that are only now coming into focus. Photosynthetic microbes created new pathways for making novel minerals of uranium and copper; now, those new uranium and copper minerals provide environments for specialised kinds of microbes, which in turn are instrumental in forming new ore deposits. The rise of atmospheric oxygen was accompanied by a decline in CO2, leading to a decrease in the oceans acidity, which fostered the formation of limestone reefs, which provided stable new environments for more photosynthesis. The oxygen produced by photosynthetic microbes also led to the formation of the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere, which blocked the Suns harmful ultraviolet radiation, allowing life to populate shallow coastal areas.

For more than 2 billion years, virtually every facet of Earths near-surface environment has displayed the intimate interplay of life and rocks. Indeed, geologists now vie with each other to produce the most novel twists in this epic love story between rocks and life. It has even been suggested that plate tectonics  the grandest of global-scale phenomena, by which continents shift while earthquakes and volcanoes alter the landscape could be influenced by life. Microbial weathering greatly enhances clay mineral production, and enhanced production of slippery clays has lubricated down-going plates of rock and accelerated tectonic events at least, thats how the story goes. A lot of geologists think that idea is wacky. After all, plate tectonics and non-microbial clay production have been around for billions of years. But such hypotheses reveal the extent to which the new co-evolutionary mindset is shaping the thinking of todays geoscientists.

Isua Greenstone Belt
On the southwestern coast of Greenland rest the oldest greenstone rocks known, which  yielded compelling evidence that life existed over 3.8 billion years ago. Douglas Page profiles this prime deposit - which until recently had attracted surprisingly little research.

In the late 1960s an airborne geophysical investigation of an area in west central Greenland conducted by a mining company detected a major magnetic anomaly. Subsequent investigation revealed a large iron ore deposit, which later proved to be part of the oldest supracrustal rocks (sediments and volcanics deposited at the surface) on Earth.

This rare outcrop of ancient rock, called the Isua Greenstone Belt (IGB), which somehow survived almost unscathed for as long as 3.8 billion years,  750 million years after Earth formation.

There are older rocks elsewhere, but these older rocks were formed deep in the Earth's crust and cannot give any information as to the surface conditions of the early Earth. The Isua rocks, however, were formed at the surface of the earliest Earth and may thus provide a wealth of information on the surface of the Earth and the environment where life might have started.

2 billion t, 30 km by 1 to 4 km Isua formation, located less than 150 km from Nuuk, the capital of Greenland.

Some scientists believe the ingredients of life likely incubated in a superheated water environment, like those found around vent or geyser communities. Others favor a well-lit, shallow-water, tidal pool-type origin, where the chemicals necessary for the reproductive miracle didn't so much poach as mingle leisurely. Still others think life may have been delivered from somewhere in the cosmos, perhaps Mars, where there exists the possibility that life originated then was transported to Earth by a spray of meteoric debris sometime during the very early history of both planets.

Indeed, the age of the Isua rocks seems to coincide generally with a cosmic volley of the inner solar system called the Late Heavy Bombardment. Such timing is critical for discussions dealing with the origins of life, no matter where life may have first formed.

Very large impactors would have the capacity to boil off the oceans and sterilize life, leading some scientists to believe that life may have had more than one origination, because even if life appeared much earlier, it may not have survived the assault.

Significantly, the rocks at Isua and at the nearby Akilia Island contain isotopic evidence implying that life not only existed by the time the rocks were deposited, it had already evolved the capacity to photosynthesize.

Evidence for life at this time comes from carbon-isotope data taken from tiny grains of carbon found in minute graphite inclusions in a rock formation discovered on Akilia Island, It may be as old as 3.85 Ga, as reported in a Nature cover story.

"Our evidence establishes beyond reasonable doubt that life emerged on Earth at least 3.85 billion years ago, and this is not the end of the story," said lead author of the Nature paper, Stephen J. Mojzsis, "We may well find that life existed even earlier." It had been thought that the Earth was uninhabitable for perhaps a billion years, but it now seems safe to assume that the Earth spawned life almost as soon as the Earth itself was born.

The form of life discovered was probably a simple micro-organism, such as photosynthesizing bacteria, although its actual shape or nature cannot be ascertained because over time heat and pressure have annihilated any original physical structure of the organisms.

"Perhaps it's a kind of cosmic imperative, that life should appear as a chemical consequence of the evolution of a planet," Mojzsis says.


Hamelin Pool Marine Nature Reserve, Australia.
The cyanobacteria have an extensive fossil record. The oldest known fossils, in fact, are cyanobacteria from Archaean rocks of western Australia, dated 3.5 billion years old. This may be somewhat surprising, since the oldest rocks are only a little older: 3.8 billion years old!
The oldest stromatolites date to the Early Archaean, and they became abundant by the end of the Archaean. In the Proterozoic, stromatolites were widespread on earth, and were ecologically important as the first reefs. By the close of the Proterozoic, the abundance of stromatolites decreased markedly, though cyanobacteria continued to leave a fossil record, such as Langiella and Kidstoniella known from the Lower Devonian Rhynie chert.

The cyanobacteria have also been tremendously important in shaping the course of evolution and ecological change throughout earth's history. The oxygen atmosphere that we depend on was generated by numerous cyanobacteria photosynthesizing during the Archaean and Proterozoic Era. Before that time, the atmosphere had a very different chemistry, unsuitable for life as we know it today.
Cyanobacteria are among the easiest microfossils to recognize. Stromatolites are layered bio-chemical accretionary structures formed in shallow water by the trapping, binding and cementation of sedimentary grains by biofilms (microbial mats) of microorganisms, especially cyanobacteria. Stromatolites are constructed by the activity of microbial communities that trap and bind sediment, but are also able to precipitate carbonate minerals.

Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, Australia
Stromatolites are built in four phases. Firstly, a pioneer microbial community is established which is dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria (mainly Schizothrix) that arrange themselves vertically, then wrap around grains of sand, trapping them in a mucus-like film.

These are then replaced by another microbial community containing quite different microbes, known as 'heterotrophic' bacteria. These new bacteria are basically organic sludge-degraders, similar to the type that decompose compost heaps. These bacteria form a continuous mucilaginous sheet on top of the first layer of sediment.

Next, a third group of bacteria comes to the party. These are sulphate-reducing bacteria that, by feeding on the mucus-like film left by the first community, promote the growth of aragonite crystals and the formation of a thin crust.

The fourth, and final, bacterial community to colonise the surface is dominated by spherical coccoid cyanobacteria (mainly Solentia). These are active microbes that bore into the previously crystallised aragonite crust, leaving behind tiny tunnels that become filled by new crystal growth - a sort of bacterial reinforced concrete. Rather than destroy the mats fabric, these cyanobacteria contribute to the construction of the stromatolite.

This sequence of colonisation by different types of bacterial communities is repeated thousands and thousands of times, resulting in the slow growth (0.1 to 0.5mm per year) over hundreds, or even thousands, of years. This process still occurs today; Shark Bay in western Australia is well known for the stromatolite "turfs" rising along its beaches.

Researchers have found what could be the oldest microbial fossils yet documented. The traces, discovered in 3.4-billion-year-old Australian rocks.

Martin Brasier, a palaeobiologist at the University of Oxford, UK, and his collaborators found the cell-like fossils in black sandstone of the Strelley Pool Formation in Western Australia, an ancient beach that is now inland. Their work is published in Nature Geoscience.

The fossils' sizes, shapes and carbon-containing cell walls are characteristic of bacterial colonies. The traces range between 5 and 80 micrometres in diameter, and take the shapes of spheres, ellipsoids and rods.

The well-preserved fossil remnants of filamentous blue-green algae have been found in petrographic thin sections of a dolomitic limestone stromatolite in the Transvaal Sequence of South Africa. Some of these filaments contain enlarged cells which are interpreted as akinetes.

A new species and genus, Petraphera vivescenticula, is proposed for this microfossil, which is morphologically similar to the living cyanophyte genus Raphidiopsis. This would constitute the first known occurrence of cell diversification in the Precambrian with an age of about 2.2 x 10(9) years.

The Fossil Book: A Record of Prehistoric Life. Av Thomas H. V. Rich

The rocks in Glacier National Park, Montana are some of the best examples of Proterozoic sedimentary rocks in the world.

Blue and yellow textures paint a Jackson Pollock style abstract across a glacial rock near Grinnell Glacier.

foto- Reuters
Located on dry land in Namibia is a 550-million-year-old reef that researchers, Professor Rachel Wood of the University of Edinburgh, say was built by the first hard-shelled animals. It is one of the oldest reefs known and tiny aquatic fossils have revealed that the creatures developed hard protective coats and constructed the reefs for shelter and safety.

The reefs - now on dry land in southern Namibia - were small, about three to six feet across (1 to 2 meters), and stood alongside larger ones made by microbes. Cloudina, perhaps related to jellyfish, corals and sea anemones, was up to six inches long (15 cm) with a diameter of about three-tenths of an inch (8 mm).

The 50-50-50 Climb.

50 Peaks in 50 States in 50 Days.

From 2010 June to August, at the ripe old age of 12, Moniz and his climbing partner (and father), Mike, reached the highest point in all 50 United States from 20,320-foot Denali to Floridas 345-foot Britton Hill in just 43 days. In the Midwest and South, they traveled by twin engine Cessna and an old Mercedes Sprinter. On Washington Rainer, they got caught in a storm before the final push to the summit. But the hardest section, what they called the loop of pain was Utahs Kings Peak, Wyomings Gannett, and Montanas Granite all of which required at least a 32-mile loop in and back. By the end, the Moniz men had hit all 50 hills and mountains with the fastest time on record. Matt, of course, is the youngest ever to pull off this feat.

1) Alaska: Mount McKinley (or Denali) at 20,320 feet (6,193 m)

2) California: Mount Whitney at 14,495 feet (4,418 m)

3) Colorado: Mount Elbert at 14,433 feet (4,399 m)

4) Washington: Mount Rainier at 14,411 feet (4,392 m)

5) Wyoming: Gannett Peak at 13,804 feet (4,207 m)

6) Hawaii: Mauna Kea at 13,796 feet (4,205 m)

7) Utah: King's Peak at 13,528 feet (4,123 m)

8) New Mexico: Wheeler Peak at 13,161 feet (4,011 m)

9) Nevada: Boundary Peak at 13,140 feet (4,005 m)

10) Montana: Granite Peak at 12,799 feet (3,901 m)

11) Idaho: Borah Peak at 12,662 feet (3,859 m)

12) Arizona: Humphrey's Peak at 12,633 feet (3,850 m)

13) Oregon: Mount Hood at 11,239 feet (3,425 m)

14) Texas: Guadalupe Peak at 8,749 feet (2,667 m)

15) South Dakota: Harney Peak at 7,242 feet (2,207 m)

16) North Carolina: Mount Mitchell at 6,684 feet (2,037 m)

17) Tennessee: Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (2,025 m)

18) New Hampshire: Mount Washington at 6,288 feet (1,916 m)

19) Virginia: Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet (1,746 m)

20) Nebraska: Panorama Point at 5,426 feet (1,654 m)

21) New York: Mount Marcy at 5,344 feet (1,628 m)

22) Maine: Katahdin at 5,268 feet (1,605 m)

23) Oklahoma: Black Mesa at 4,973 feet (1,515 m)

24) West Virginia: Spruce Knob at 4,861 feet (1,481 m)

25) Georgia: Brasstown Bald at 4,783 feet (1,458 m)

26) Vermont: Mount Mansfield at 4,393 feet (1,339 m)

27) Kentucky: Black Mountain at 4,139 feet (1,261 m)

28) Kansas: Mount Sunflower at 4,039 feet (1,231 m)

29) South Carolina: Sassafras Mountain at 3,554 feet (1,083 m)

30) North Dakota: White Butte at 3,506 feet (1,068 m)

31) Massachusetts: Mount Greylock at 3,488 feet (1,063 m)

32) Maryland: Backbone Mountain at 3,360 feet (1,024 m)

33) Pennsylvania: Mount Davis at 3,213 feet (979 m)

34) Arkansas: Magazine Mountain at 2,753 feet (839 m)

35) Alabama: Cheaha Mountain at 2,405 feet (733 m)

36) Connecticut: Mount Frissell at 2,372 feet (723 m)

37) Minnesota: Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet (701 m)

38) Michigan: Mount Arvon at 1,978 feet (603 m)

39) Wisconsin: Timms Hill at 1,951 feet (594 m)

40) New Jersey: High Point at 1,803 feet (549 m)

41) Missouri: Taum Sauk Mountain at 1,772 feet (540 m)

42) Iowa: Hawkeye Point at 1,670 feet (509 m)

43) Ohio: Campbell Hill at 1,549 feet (472 m)

44) Indiana: Hoosier Hill at 1,257 feet (383 m)

45) Illinois: Charles Mound at 1,235 feet (376 m)

46) Rhode Island: Jerimoth Hill at 812 feet (247 m)

47) Mississippi: Woodall Mountain at 806 feet (245 m)

48) Louisiana: Driskill Mountain at 535 feet (163 m)

49) Delaware: Ebright Azimuth at 442 feet (135 m)

50) Florida: Britton Hill at 345 feet (105 m)


The Alps 82 peaks in 82 day.

There are 82 peaks over 4,000 meters in the Alps, and during 2006/7 winter season Slovenian Miha Valic climbed all of them. Valic had hoped to summit all of the 4,000-meter peaks in 82 days, during the calendar winter, but bad weather forced delays. Climbing with many different partners, he completed 74 peaks in 82 days, and then added nearly three weeks to his schedule, wrapping up the 82 peaks in 102 days of the winter season, from December 27. 2006 to April 7. 2007.

The classic routes to the popular 4,000-meter peaks are packed with mountaineers in the summer, but the situation in the wintertime is completely different. The mountain huts are closed or not taken care of, and the snow makes it extremely tiring to reach them. The combination of a short day, extreme cold, strong winds, and complete wilderness gave a sense of magnificent high mountain ranges on other continents.



On 5 October 2008, Valič died while descending Cho Oyu, Nepal, after a successful ascent.

The idea of climbing all 82 4000-meter peaks of the Alps in a row (possibly in 82 days) has been a thorn in European alpinists flesh for a while. In the summer of 1993, English climbers Martin Moran and Simon Jenkins ascended 75 peaks in 52 daysthe official UIAA list did not exist at that time yet.

Next to attempt this Alpine marathon in the springtime were Patrick Berhault and Philippe Magnin in 2004, but they were unfortunately stopped by an accident after reaching 65 peaks. Berhault was killed in a fall from the Dom.Ed.

In the spring of 2006, the Italians Franz Nicolini and Michele Compagnoni climbed 25 peaks from the list and then called off the project due to the bad weather.

The challenge of climbing 82 peaks in 82 days in the winter still remains.




Trade routes.

New inventions, religious beliefs, artistic styles, languages, and social customs, as well as goods and raw materials, were transmitted by people moving from one place to another to conduct business. Trade provides mankind's most significant meeting place, the market. New ideas, along with precious artefacts, have always travelled along trade routes.

Trade originated in prehistoric times. It was the main facility of prehistoric people, who bartered goods and services from each other when modern money was never even thought of. Peter Watson dates the history of long-distance commerce from circa 150,000 years ago.

By far the easiest method of transporting goods is by water, particularly in an era when towns and villages are linked by footpaths rather than roads. The first extensive trade routes are up and down the great rivers which become the backbones of early civilizations - the Nile, the Tigris and Euphrates, the Indus and the Yellow River.


Historians presume that around 75 percent of trade was conducted within a radius of around 20 kilometres back then  which would have been the furthest distance able to be reached in one day. Long-distance overland trade was only really worth the effort if valuable goods were being transported, such as amber or lapis lazuli.

Long-range trade routes first appeared in the 3rd millennium BC, when Sumerians in Mesopotamia traded with the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley. Materials used for creating jewelry were traded with Egypt since 3000 BC.

The eastern Mediterranean is the first region to develop extensive maritime trade, first between Egypt and Minoan Crete and then - in the ships of the intrepid Phoenicians - westwards through the chain of Mediterranean islands and along the north African coast.

The Phoenicians were noted sea traders, traveling across the Mediterranean Sea, and as far north as Britain for sources of tin to manufacture bronze. From 2,000 BC, the Phoenicians established their own trade empire from their base in the Levant (the countries in the eastern Mediterranean), which later extended as far as the coasts of Portugal and Guinea. Trade in obsidian is believed to have taken place in Guinea from 17,000 BC. Trade in the Mediterranean during the Neolithic of Europe was greatest in this material.

The Westfälische Hellweg, which leads from Duisburg to Höxter near Paderborn and beyond, is one of central Europes oldest trade routes and is said to be up to 5000 years old.

The Amber Road, the old north-south connection in Europe, was an important trade route. It was built about 1700 BC and was created because it was the easiest possible way. The most important commodity of the Amber Road was iron.

Découvrez les mystères de la route de l'ambre sous l'antiquité. Commerce d'ambre de la baltique au bassin méditerranéen.

In the parched regions of north Africa and Asia two different species of camel become the most important beasts of burden - the single-humped Arabian camel (in north Africa, the Middle East, India) and the double-humped Bactrian camel (central Asia, Mongolia). Both are well adapted to desert conditions. They can derive water, when none is available elsewhere, from the fat stored in their humps.  By about 1000 BC caravans of camels are bringing precious goods up the west coast of Arabia, linking India with Egypt, Phoenicia and Mesopotamia.

The Grand Trunk Road is one of Asias oldest and longest major roads. Existed: 330BC - present

Roman empire road

In 106 BC, for the first time, a caravan leaves China and travels through to Persia without the goods changing hands on the way. The Silk Road is open.




Map of Eurasia showing the trade network of the Radhanites (in blue), c. 870, as reported in the account of ibn Khordadbeh in the Book of Roads and Kingdoms. Other trade routes of the period shown in purple.

The Tea-Horse-Route, c. 700 AD - 1960

The romance of the Silk Road can be traced to Marco Polo.  The Venetian explorer was only 17 years old when he started his travels to China along the ancient Silk Road.In 1271 Marco Polo, his father and his uncle set off for Asia on the series of adventures that Marco later documented in his book. They returned to Venice in 1295, 24 years later, with many riches and treasures. They had travelled almost 15,000 miles (24,000 km).

More than 1000 years ago an important way of long-distance trade went from the North Sea up to the Mediterrean. The Old Salt Route through Europa, Saxony and Bohemia. 

Hanseatic trade(1358-1862)-The Hanseatic  League was created to protect economic interests and diplomatic privileges in the cities and countries and along the trade routes the merchants visited. In the middle of the 12th century, merchants and then entire cities joined forces in the Hanseatic League in order to guarantee the safety of their trade routes. At its peak, the Hanseatic League encompassed over 60 cities, from Tallinn to Bruges.

Centres of trade in Northern Italy were not official associations in the same sense as the Hanseatic League, but their trade networks extended even further afield. They benefitted from centuries of trade with Islamic merchants. Florentine trading company Peruzzi, for example, had offices and agencies from London to Cyprus, Barcelona to Constantinople and Paris to Tunis. Venice prospered particularly as a result of Oriental trade, even before the legendary journeys of Marco Polo. By contrast, Genoa was more active in the western Mediterranean and with European Atlantic ports. Genovese mariners had been sailing around the world under the Portuguese flag since the 14th century, focusing on finding overseas routes to India along the west coast of Africa. One expedition led by Pedro Álvares Cabral in 1500 was driven away from Africa by unfavourable winds and ended up landing in Brazil.

Venice as key of world trade between 13th and 15th century.

Saharan trade routes circa 1400, with the modern territory of Niger highlighted.

Inca road - Road construction began in the mid-fifteenth century when the Inca gained control over its neighbors and started expanding its empire; it ended abruptly 125 years later when the Spanish arrived in Peru.

Spice trade - During the high and late medieval periods Muslim traders dominated maritime spice trading routes throughout the Indian Ocean, tapping source regions in the Far East and shipping spices from trading emporiums in India westward to the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, from which overland routes led to Europe.

The trade was transformed by the European Age of Discovery, during which the spice trade, particularly in black pepper, became an influential activity for European traders.The route from Europe to the Indian Ocean via the Cape of Good Hope was pioneered by the Portuguese explorer navigator Vasco da Gama in 1498, resulting in new maritime routes for trade.



The Natchez Trace, also known as the "Old Natchez Trace", is a historical path that extends roughly 440 miles from Natchez, Mississippi to Nashville, Tennessee. It was created and used for centuries by Native Americans, and was later used by early European and American explorers, traders and emigrants in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Santa Fe trail - The Santa Fe Trail was a 19th-century transportation route through central North America that connected Franklin, Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico. Pioneered in 1821 by William Becknell, it served as a vital commercial and military highway until the introduction of the railroad to Santa Fe in 1880.

Gold rush trail - A gold rush is a period of feverish migration of workers to an area that has had a dramatic discovery of gold deposits. Major gold rushes took place in the 19th century in Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, and the United States.

Fair weather on the deck of a clipper-ship carrying gold seekers to California.

Over Chilkoot Pass during the Gold Rush in Alaska. Thousands of gold seekers used this trail.

The Trans-Siberian Railway -  With a length of 9,289 km (5,772 mi), it is the longest railway line in the world. In March 1890, the future Tsar Nicholas II personally inaugurated the construction of the Far East segment of the Trans-Siberian Railway during his stop at Vladivostok, after visiting Japan at the end of his journey around the world.

The Silk route highlighted on the map confirms that trade and commerce across boundaries and geographies was prevalent before the outbreak of the First World War in 1914.

Northwest Passage - Sought by explorers for centuries as a possible trade route, it was first navigated by Roald Amundsen in 1903-1906. Until 2009, the Arctic pack ice prevented regular marine shipping throughout most of the year, but climate change has reduced the pack ice, and this Arctic shrinkage made the waterways more navigable.

Suez and Panam canal

Opened in November 1869 after 10 years of construction, it allows ships to travel between Europe and eastern Asia without navigating around Africa. It reduces about 7000 km to travel to Europe from India.

France began work on the canal in 1881, but had to stop because of engineering problems and high mortality due to disease. The United States took over the project in 1904, and took a decade to complete the canal, which was officially opened on August 15, 1914. One of the largest and most difficult engineering projects ever undertaken, the Panama Canal shortcut greatly reduced the time for ships to travel between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

Since the Conference of American States in 1923 there have been plans to build a Pan-American Highway - a continuous roadway running the full 25,800km (16,000 mi) from Alaska to the bottom of Chile.

With the planned connection of the Marmaray project(The Eurasia Tunnel) under the Bosphorus to the Edirne-Kars high-speed railway line, a train line from Chinas easternmost Lianyungang to Spain and England would be completed.

Bering Strait bridge - A Bering Strait crossing is a hypothetical bridge or tunnel spanning the narrow and shallow Bering Strait between the Chukotka Peninsula in Russia and the Seward Peninsula in the U.S. state of Alaska. The bridge or tunnel would provide an overland connection linking Asia with North America.

Major shipping routes (2004)

The Busiest Flight Paths In The World. In 2011, 9.9 million passengers flew between the two cities of Seoul and Jeju.

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an organization that intends to supervise and liberalize international trade. The organization officially commenced on 1 January 1995.

The Masters of the Art of Climbing.

Mountaineering, a passion only handful of humans can undertake, despite the risks to their lives. Ascending thousands of feet above the ground, challenging ones physical limits and surpassing dire weather conditions, one can enjoy Glory! - www.nepalvisiontreks.com

Jerzy Kukuczka
- one of the most outstanding Himalayan climbers in history, the second man, after Reinhold Messner, to climb all 14 eight-thousanders in the world. He was also the first man to climb three of the fourteen in winter. He is also the only climber to have ascended four of the eight-thousanders during winter. He was one of an elite group of Polish Himalayan mountaineers who specialized in winter ascents. He ascended all fourteen mountains in just under eight years, a shorter time than any climber before (Reinhold Messner included, whom it took 16 years) or since. A legend, he lost his life in the Himalayas 25 years ago.


Walter Bonatti - was an Italian mountain climber, explorer, prolific writer and journalist. Famed for his climbing panache, he pioneered little known and technically difficult climbs in the Alps, Himalayas and Patagonia. 


Dan Osman  was a Japanese-American extreme sport practitioner, known for the dangerous sports of free-soloing, rock climbing without ropes or other safety gear. He also participated in rope free-flying or rope jumping, falling several hundred feet from a cliff then being caught by a safety rope, for which his record was over 300 m.


Reinhold Messner

- http://explorerplanet.blogg.no/1322955342_04des2011.html

John Harlin
was an American mountaineer and US Air Force pilot who was killed while making an ascent of the north face of the Eiger.

Dougal Hastin - was a Scottish mountaineer famed for his exploits in the British Isles, Alps, and Himmalayas. He died in an avalanche while skiing above Leysin, Switzerland.

Jim Whitaker was the first American to reach the summit of Mount Everest. He summited on May 1, 1963 with the Sherpa Nawang Gombu (a nephew of Tenzing Norgay). They ran out of oxygen but managed to reach the summit. He led the Earth Day 20 International Peace Climb that brought together climbers from the United States, USSR and China to summit Mount Everest.


Fred Becky - 
is an American rock climber, mountaineer and author, who has made hundreds of first ascents, more than any other North American climber.


Sir Edmund Hillary -
Hillary and Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer Tenzing Norgay became the first climbers confirmed as having reached the summit of Mount Everest. Following his ascent of Everest, Hillary devoted most of his life to helping the Sherpa people of Nepal through the Himalayan Trust, which he founded. Through his efforts, many schools and hospitals were built in Nepal.


Royal Robbins - 
is one of the pioneers of American rock climbing. After learning to climb at Tahquitz he went on to make first ascents of many big wall routes in Yosemite. As an early proponent of boltless, pitonless clean climbing, he, along with Yvon Chouinard, was instrumental in changing the climbing culture of the late 1960s and early 1970s by encouraging the use and preservation of the natural features of the rock.

Tomaz Humar - was a Slovenian mountaineer. He completed over 1500 ascents, and won a number of mountaineering and other awards, including the Piolet d'Or in 1996 for his Ama Dablam ascent.

He became widely recognized in 1999 after his famous solo ascent of the south face of Dhaulagiri, considered one of the deadliest routes in the Himalayas with a 40% fatality rate.
During a solo attempt to climb Nanga Parbat in 2005, Humar became trapped by avalanches and melting snow at an altitude of nearly 6000 meters. After six days in a snow cave he was rescued by a Pakistan Army helicopter crew on August 10, 2005.

On November 9, 2009, Humar, who was on a solo climb via the South Face of Langtang Lirung, had an accident during the descent. His only contact with the base camp staff via a satellite phone was made on the day of the accident and he appeared to be in critical condition with leg, spine and rib injuries. He was stuck on the mountain at an elevation of approximately 6,300 meters for several days before his body was found on November 14, 2009 at an elevation of 5,600 meters.


Heinrich Harrer -
was an Austrian mountaineer, sportsman, geographer, and author. He is best known for being on the four-man climbing team that made the first ascent of the North Face of the Eiger in Switzerland, and for his books Seven Years in Tibet (1952) and The White Spider (1959).


Anderl Heckmair - was a German mountain climber and guide who led the first successful ascent of the Eiger north face in July 1938. Heckmair climbed new routes on the Grandes Jorasses and many other alpine mountains. He also participated in expeditions to the Andes and the Himalaya. After serving on the Eastern Front in World War II, he worked as a mountain guide in his native Bavaria, and was one of the driving forces in the formation of a professional association for mountain guides.

Thomas Hornbein - Hornbein and his partner Willi Unsoeld attempted to climb Mount Everest in 1963 as part of the American Everest Expedition.


Ed Viesturs - is a high-altitude mountaineer and corporate speaker. He is the only American to have climbed all fourteen of the world's eight-thousander mountain peaks, and the fifth person to do so without using supplemental oxygen. He has summited peaks of over 8,000 meters on 21 occasions, including Mount Everest seven times; only two other climbers, Phurba Tashi Sherpa Mendewa and Juanito Oiarzabal, have more high-altitude ascents. He was named National Geographic's Adventurer of the Year (2005).


Anatoli Boukreev - was an ethnic-Russian Kazakhstani mountaineer who made ascents of seven of the fourteen eight-thousander peaks, i.e., peaks above 8,000 m (26,000 ft), without supplemental oxygen. From 1989 through 1997, he made 18 successful ascents of peaks above 8000 m.
Boukreev had a reputation as an elite mountaineer in international climbing circles, (for summiting K2 in 1993 and Mount Everest via the North Ridge route in 1995) but became more widely known for his role in saving climbers during the deadly 1996 climbing season on Everest.
In 1997 Boukreev was killed in an avalanche during a winter ascent of Annapurna in Nepal.


Joe Brown - Brown is widely regarded as the outstanding pioneering English rock climber of the 1950s and early 1960s. He established an unprecedented number of classic new routes (especially in Snowdonia and the Peak District) that were at the leading edge of the hardest grades. As well as creating pioneering routes, he often helped create new types of "protection" to improve safety on climbs, and is acknowledged to have created some of the first "nuts" by drilling the thread out of nuts and threading the centre with a sling. He made many significant ascents in the Alps in the 1950s with Don Whillans and other members of the Rock and Ice climbing club and, in 1955, the first ascent of the third highest mountain in the world, Kangchenjunga in the Nepalese Himalaya, with George Band. In 1956 he made the first ascent of the west summit of the Muztagh Tower in the Karakoram with Ian McNaught-Davis.

Boardman and Tasker - Peter Boardman was a British mountaineer and author. He is best known for a series of bold and lightweight expeditions to the Himalaya, often in partnership with Joe Tasker, and for his contribution to mountain literature. Boardman and Tasker died on the North East Ridge of Mount Everest in 1982.

Hermann Buhl - was an Austrian mountaineer, and is considered one of the best climbers of all time. He was particularly innovative in applying alpine style to Himalayan climbing. His accomplishments include: 1953 First ascent of Nanga Parbat, 8,126 metres (solo and without bottled oxygen). Before his successful Nanga Parbat expedition, 31 people had died trying to make the first ascent. Buhl is the mountaineer to have made the first solo ascent of an eight-thousander. Just a few weeks after the successful first ascent of Broad Peak (with Fritz Wintersteller and Marcus Schmuck), Buhl and Kurt Diemberger made an attempt on nearby, unclimbed Chogolisa 7654 m in alpine style. Buhl died when he fell through a cornice on the southeast ridge near the summit of Chogolisa.

Willie Unsoeld -
was an American mountaineer who, along with Tom Hornbein, were members of the first American expedition to summit Mount Everest on May 22, 1963. Unsoeld and Hornbein's legendary climb was the first ascent from the peak's west ridge, and the first major traverse of a Himalayan peak. Unsoeld died in an avalanche during an Outdoor Education Winter Expedition climb of Mt. Rainier in March 1979 at the age of 52. He was leading over a dozen students from The Evergreen State College on an ascent of Mt. Rainier at the time. He died during the descent from their high camp in Cadaver Gap along with one student.

Gaston Rebuffat -
was a well-known French alpinist and mountain guide. The climbing technique, to gaston, was named after him. 


Alex Lowe - was widely considered one of his generation's finest all-around mountaineers. Lowe died in a massive slab avalanche in Tibet. Lowe gained iconic status within the climbing community for his courage, humility, grace and supreme athleticism. Numerous first ascents and heroic feats earned him a cult-like following, and a host of colorful nicknames: "The White Knight," "The Mutant," and "The Lung with Legs," this last moniker bestowed by an astonished climber who witnessed Lowe carrying a heavy load, no less effortlessly ascend Aconcagua in a two-day lightning assault.

George Mallory -
was an English mountaineer who took part in the first three British expeditions to Mount Everest in the early 1920s. During the 1924 British Mount Everest Expedition, Mallory and his climbing partner Andrew "Sandy" Irvine both disappeared on the North-East ridge during their attempt to make the first ascent of the world's highest mountain. The pair were last seen when they were about 800 vertical feet (245m) from the summit.
Mallory's ultimate fate was unknown for 75 years, until his body was discovered on 1 May 1999 by an expedition that had set out to search for the climbers' remains. Whether Mallory and Irvine reached the summit before they died remains a subject of speculation and continuing research.

In 1924, together with other members of the expedition, at the Winter Olympics in Chamonix J. Mallory has been recognized by the Olympic champion for the first time introduced the nomination - mountaineering (Prix olympique d'alpinisme).

Ueli Steck -
is a Swiss rock climber and mountaineer. He is famous for his speed records on the North Face trilogy in the Alps. The climbing magazine Climb named him one of the three best alpinists in Europe.


Johnny Dawes -  is a British rock climber. He is famous for his dynamic style and often very bold ascents. His influence on British climbing was at its peak in the mid to late-1980s. Among his contributions is the introduction of two new grades to the British grading system for rock climbing (E8 and E9), and several new routes that are today still well respected.


Alex Honnold -
is an American rock climber best known for his free solo ascents of big walls. He has broken a number of speed records. Honnold says that he likes tall, long routes and that he tries to do them quickly.



Juanito Oiarzabal - is a noted Spanish Basque mountaineer and has written four books on the subject. He was the sixth man to reach all 14 eight-thousander summits, and the third one in reaching them without supplementary oxygen. He was the first person to conquer the top 3 summits twice (Everest + K2 + Kangchenjunga). In 2009 he announced he wants to become the first person in history to reach a "double 14", summiting each 8000er twice. In April 2010 he reached 24 eight-thousanders, after climbing Annapurna, a world record. In 2011 he climbed Lhotse for a second time, which was his 25th eight-thousander. He is second all-time for 8000er ascents behind Nepali climber Phurba Tashi Sherpa, who has 30.

Phurba Tashi Sherpa - is a Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer known for his numerous ascents of major Himalayan peaks. He holds the record for the most total ascents of eight-thousanders, with 30. These include twenty-one ascents of Mount Everest, five on Cho Oyu, two on Manaslu, and one each on Shishapangma and Lhotse. In 2009 Tashi was featured in the Discovery Channel series Everest: Beyond the Limit. As of 2013 he has reached the summit of Everest 21 times.

Krzysztof Wielicki -
is a Polish alpine and high-altitude climber. He is the fifth man to climb all fourteen eight-thousanders and the first ever to climb Mount Everest, Kangchenjunga, and Lhotse in the winter. He is a member of The Explorers Club.

Ang Rita sherpa -
is a mountain climber who has climbed Mount Everest ten times without the use of supplemental oxygen in just over 13 years and is thus known as "The Snow Leopard".

Wojciech Kurtyka -
is a Polish mountaineer and rock climber, one of the pioneers of the alpine style of climbing the biggest walls in the Greater Ranges. His climbs in Poland consist of many difficult climbs ? in crags, the hardest free climbs and free solo climbs of the time. In the Tatra Mountains he did a lot of first free ascents, first ascents in winter and established new winter routes.

Erhard Loretan - was a Swiss mountain climber, often described as one of the greatest mountaineers of all times.Loretan was the third person to have climbed all 14 eight-thousanders (second without oxygen).

Apa Sherpa - is a Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer who, jointly with Phurba Tashi, holds the record for reaching the summit of Mount Everest more times than any other person. As part of The Eco Everest Expedition 2011, Apa made his 21st Mount Everest summit in May 2011.

Edurne Pasaban - On May 17, 2010, she became the 21st person and the first woman to climb all of the fourteen eight-thousander peaks in the World.

Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner - In August 2011, she became the second woman to climb the fourteen eight-thousanders, and the first woman to do so without the use of supplementary oxygen or high altitude porters.

Jeff Lowe
is an American alpinist. He is known for his visionary climbs and first ascents established in the US and Canadian Rockies, Alps and Himalayas. He is a proponent of the "Alpine style" philosophy of climbing, where small teams travel fast with minimal gear. Lowe has made over 1000 first ascents.

Charlie Porter - For a period of just four years in the 1970s, Porter chalked up a series of first ascents of the most daunting climbs in North America, mostly by himself and nearly always without publicity. He regarded climbing as an amateur pursuit, and since he never wanted to make money out of it, he never took a camera or wrote up what he did.

Chris Sharma -
is widely hailed as one of the best rock climbers of all time. He first started climbing at age 12, and two years later won his first major competition, a national bouldering event. At age 15, he climbed what was then the hardest route in North America.

Adam Ondra
- As of 2013, he climbed 1,059 routes between 8a (5.13b) and 9b+ (5.15c), of which 501 were onsights including several at 8c+ (5.14c).

Dave Hahn
- On May 26, 2012 he reached the summit of Mount Everest for the 14th time - the most for a non-Sherpa climber. Among Hahns other notable accomplishments are his 30 summits of Vinson Massif, Antarcticas highest mountain. He has reached the summit of Mount McKinley in Alaska, North Americas highest peak, 20 times over the course of 27 expeditions in 25 years.


The greatest show on Earth - Le Tour de France.


The Tour de France is an annual multiple stage bicycle race. http://www.letour.fr/

The Tour is a UCI World Tour event. http://www.uciprotour.com

The Tour de France, the Giro d'Italia and Vuelta a España make up cyclings prestigious, three-week-long Grand Tours; the Tour de France is the oldest and generally considered the of the three.

The race was first organized in 1903 to increase paper sales for the magazine L'Auto.

The race has been held annually since its first edition except for when it was stopped for the two World Wars.

As the Tour gained prominence and popularity the race was lengthened and its reach began to extend around the Europe. Participation expanded from a primarily French field, as riders from all over the world began to participate in the race each year.

The route changes each year, the format of the race stays the same with the appearance of at least two time trials, the passage through the mountain chains of the Pyrenees and the Alps, and the finish on the Champs-Élysées in Paris.


The modern editions of the Tour de France consist of 21 day-long segments (stages) over a 23-day period and cover around 3500 km.

The number of teams usually varies between 20 and 22, with 9 riders in each.



Stephan Farffler (1633 - 1689) was a Nuremberg (Germany) a handicapped watchmaker whose invention of a manumotive carriage in 1655 is widely considered to have been the first self-propelled wheelchair. The three-wheeled device is also believed to have been a precursor to the modern-day tricycle and bicycle.

As a model it could serve vehicles, which had been also constructed from 1649 in Nuremberg by Hans Hautsch, including a crank-powered wheelchairs and two floats. He built a four-wheeled mechanical car (a carriage without horses) that allegedly drove 1.6 km/h (in an hour 2000 steps). It is thought to have been worked by two men concealed inside, who turned the rear axle by means of handles. It could carry several passengers, and a dragon in front could spout out a stream of water to clear a way through a crowd. If this didn't frighten people out of the way, the angels, mounted one on each side of the carriage, sounded their trumpets. Hautsch sold his first carriage to the Crown Prince of Sweden and later built another for the King of Denmark.

Two Frenchmen, named Blanchard and Maguier invented a tricycle in 1789.

The first verifiable claim for a practically used bicycle belongs to German Baron Karl von Drais.

Drais invented his Laufmaschine of 1817 that was called Draisine (English) by the press.

Karl von Drais patented this design in 1818, which was the first commercially successful two-wheeled, steerable, human-propelled machine, commonly called a velocipede (latin for "fast foot"), and nicknamed hobby-horse or dandy horse.

Dandy horses had no pedals or brakes, but were propelled by the rider pushing on the ground with his feet, and dragging the feet to slow the machine.

It was initially manufactured in Germany and France. Hans-Erhard Lessing found from circumstantial evidence that Drais interest in finding an alternative to the horse was the starvation and death of horses caused by crop failure in 1816. He had created his contraption in 1817 as a horse-substitute because, it is now believed, the price of oats, and everything else, had soared after the planet was plunged into darkness after the volcanic eruption of Indonesias Mt. Tambora in 1815. 1816 was known as the Year Without a Summer. Horses starved because of lack of fodder. Later chronicles talk of "pferdesterben", horse agony. American historian John D. Frost described the Year Without a Summer as "the last big subsistence crisis of mankind".

The rate represented the essential quality criterion , the Baron Drais said that "a well-kept road, uphill velocipede can match the speed of a man running around , while he descent approach of a galloping horse . On flat ground , even after a heavy rain , he traveled two leagues (about 8 km) per hour , and therefore appears as fast as a courier on horseback. " It weighed 23 pounds the first velocipede and showed peaks at 12.5 km / h .

To demonstrate the usefulness new invention, Drais ride in the summer from Mannheim on June 12, 1817 a 14.5 km long route in less than an hour, for which the post horses then took about four hours.

Painting of Nicephore Niépce with his draisienne, from their family home..14 miles in 15 days!

Constructed almost entirely of wood, the draisine weighed 22 kg, had brass bushings within the wheel bearings, iron shod wheels, a rear-wheel brake and 152 mm of trail of the front-wheel for a self-centering caster effect. Several thousand copies were built and used, primarily in Western Europe and in North America.

Its popularity rapidly faded when, partly due to increasing numbers of accidents, some city authorities began to prohibit its use.

Hobby horse race, Paris, Jardin de Luxembourg, 1818

The first recorded attempt to add non-running propulsion to a Draisienne was by Lewis Gompertz in 1821.

Mr. Gompertz added a rocking crank with a gear sector which drove a pinion gear attached to the front wheel by a one-way clutch. Although this approach as a technical dead end it was the first case where the rider had to propel and steer a bicycle with the same mechanism.

The addition failed to catch on. For Gompertz, the lack of interest in the two-wheel singletrack vehicle wasnt due to poor vehicle design but to the surface upon which the vehicle was forced to run. Hobbyhorses, with their wooden wheels, were more usually urban runabouts, not long-distance machines.

The first mechanically propelled 2-wheel vehicle is believed to have been produced by Gavin Dalzell of Lesmahagow, circa 1845. There is no record of Dalzell ever having laid claim to inventing the machine. It is believed that he copied the idea having recognised the potential to help him with his local drapery business and there is some evidence that he used the contraption to take his wares into the rural community around his home.

The first documented producer of rod-driven 2-wheelers, treadle bicycles, was Thomas McCall, of Kilmarnock in 1869.

He built, in 1869, two versions of a two-wheeled velocipede with levers and rods tossing a crank on the rear wheel.

In 1862 Pierre Lallement (France) modified dandy horse by adding a transmission comprising a rotary crank mechanism and pedals attached to the front-wheel hub, thus creating the first true bicycle (pedal-bicycle). Thus allowed to achieve a 5 km / h by 30 pedal rotations per minute , with draisine unattainable. He moved to Paris in 1863 and apparently interacted with the Olivier brothers who saw commercial potential in his invention.

Soon Lallement essayed a longer road ride, and one that he thought would test the qualities of the machine for road use, and convince the sceptics. This first bicycle spin proved both interesting and amusing. The route lay through a part of the main street in Ansonia, over a long bridge, and the main country road south, to the thriving manufacturing village of Birmingham (which nestles about a hill, with a fine green near the centre and the main street, and overlook charming villages) and back again a distance of about 4,5 miles.

The Oliviers formed a partnership with Pierre Michaux to mass-produce a 2-wheeled velocipede. Thus it was under Michaux's name that Lallement's bike became famous, and was accordingly called Michauline. Englishman couldnt figure out how to pronounce the French word Michauline and quickly coined the nickname Boneshaker.

The Michauline marked a very important step in the evolution of the bike. For one, it was the first mass-produced bicycle ever. And to facilitate production in a factory, Michaux opted for cast iron as frame material. Cast iron is very heavy and prone to breaking, so latter versions of the Michauline were built with wrought iron frames.

It is widely accepted that the first bicycle race anywhere in the world was held on 31st May, 1868 in the Parc de Saint-Cloud, Paris, and that it was won by an English gentleman - James Moore. It was a short race - just 1200 metres.
Mr. Moore rode a bicycle made essentially of wood, though it had iron tyres!
But Moore really was a  fine athlete. He went on in the following year to win the first-ever great long-distance bicycle race - from Paris to Rouen on 7 November 1869 sponsored by Le Vélocipède Illustré and the Olivier brothers' Michaux Bicycle Company. For that event, he rode an improved machine: his was the only bicycle in the race that was equipped in the pedal axle with ball bearings.
Moore got to Rouen - a distance of 77 miles - in 10 hours and 40 minutes. 120 competitors took part in the race. Very pleasing, amazing and impressive is that two of them were women.

The man who finished second - fifteen minutes behind James Moore - was André Castera. Here are the two heroes (Moore on the right) posing after the race.

In 1869, James Finlay  won a velocipede race on the Melbourne Cricket Ground, riding a bicycle that he had built himself and named "The Barb".  The race is regarded as the earliest known Australia's first bicycle race.James Finlay was born in Scotland in 1842, and emmigrated to Australia as a child with his family.  He worked as a blacksmith, and therefore possessed the metalwork skills required for the construction of the early models of bicycles.

Pickwick Bicycle Club is the oldest touring club in the world was founded in England, 1870.

In 1870, the Frenchman Eugene Meyer was credited for inventing the High Bicycle.
The high-bicycle was the logical extension of the boneshaker, the front wheel enlarging to enable higher speeds. The rear wheel shrinking and the frame being made lighter. They were fast, but unsafe. The rider was high up in the air and traveling at a great speed. If he hit a bad spot in the road he could easily be thrown over the front wheel and be seriously injured (two broken wrists were common, in attempts to break a fall) or even killed. The dangerous nature of these bicycles made cycling the preserve of adventurous young men. The risk averse, such as elderly gentlemen, preferred the more stable tricycles or quadracycles.

In 1876, James Starley developed the Coventry Lever Tricycle.

Harry John Lawson invented a rear-chain-drive bicycle in 1879 with his "bicyclette", it still had a huge front wheel and a small rear wheel.

The first front steering tricycle was manufactured by The Leicester Safety Tricycle Company of Leicester, England in 1881.

Six-day is a track cycling race that lasts six days. The overall winner is the team which completes most laps. Six Day races come from a time in cycling where athletic ability was proved by riding more than 500 km.  http://www.sixdayracing.com/

The first six-day event was an individual time trial at the Agricultural Hall in Islington, London in 1878 when a professional called David Stanton sought a bet that he could ride 1000 miles in six successive days, riding 18 hours a day. Stanton started at 6am on 25 February and won the bet in 73 hours, riding on a high-wheeled machine at an average speed of 13.5 mph.

Twenty-Five Mile Race at the American Institute, New York. 1880

The Bicycle Tournament at Springfield, Massachusetts - On the Homestretch - Ten Mile Race. 1883

The Bicycle Tournament at Hartford - The Mile Race for Amateurs, drawn by A. Berghaus.1885

John Kemp Starley, James's nephew, produced the first successful "safety bicycle"  the "Rover," in 1885, which he never patented. It featured a steerable front wheel that had significant caster, equally sized wheels and a chain drive to the rear wheel.

The Austral Wheel Race is the oldest continuously held cycling race that is still being held.  The Austral race is Australias greatest track cycling event. It is held in Melbourne, riders assigned handicaps according to ability over a series of heats. The finals are run over 2000m. The first race in february 1887 held at Melbourne Cricket Ground over 3 miles (4800m). First The Austral Wheel Race winners was Harry Lambton.

One of the oldest continuing cycle race in the world - Catford Hill Climb race. August 20th 1887 saw 24 starters tackle Westerham Hill, Kent in the very first Catford CC Hill Climb. Not only was it a challenge to get to the top, but solid tyres on the then unmade roads made it a precarious ride. This prestigious event goes all the way back to 1887 and, with the exception of the war years, has been run ever since. Traditionally on the first Sunday in October. Prior to the formation of the governing body it was considered to be the Championship of All England and still attracts the very leading 'Hill-Climb' riders from all over the country, be they professionals or amateurs. The challenge is Yorks Hill a 707 yard climb with an average gradient of 12.5%, with two stretches of 25% which requires an all-out lung bursting effort to get up the climb. The current record of 1 minute 47.6 seconds was set by Phil Mason in 1983.   http://www.catfordcc.co.uk/hillclimb/enter.aspx?sm=21_2

Arthur Augustus Zimmerman was one of the world's greatest cycling sprint riders and winner of the first world championship in 1893. Zimmerman was amateur cyclist from 1887 to 1893.

The emergence of cycling resulted directly from a revolution in cycling technology in the 1880's - principally the advent of the safety bicycle. The application in 1885 of the chain and cog mechanism to transfer propulsive energy to the rear wheel, led to a fundamental change in frame geometry: from the perilous high wheeler to the "safer" configuration of the small-wheeled diamond frame. This innovation was followed rapidly by other improvements to spokes, wheel rims, brakes and, importantly, pneumatic tires. By the end of the 1880's, something closely approximating the modern bicycle had come into being. Its promoters sought venues in which to display its worth.

The first such venue to catch the attention of the French public was a race jointly announced in 1890 by the Velo Club Bordelais and the leading cycling periodical of the day, Veloce-Sport. Bordeaux-Paris was held on May 23-24, 1891 on a 572 km route. It was the first inter-city race to feature the safety bicycle. The Bordeaux Paris professional cycle race was one of Europe's Classic cycle races, and one of the longest in the professional calendar, covering approximately 350 mi - more than twice most single-day races. http://www.bordeauxparis.com/en/

Le Petit Journal, noting the spike in its circulation its coverage of the event had caused, charged Giffard with organising a more challenging event that would sustain the interest of its readership over a longer period. And so, several months later, the first Paris-Brest-Paris was held. It was to be the first of several events organised on behalf of the newspaper by Giffard. http://www.paris-brest-paris.org/ 

Pierre Giffard

By the 1890's, already a veteran of over twenty years of journalistic experience, Pierre Giffard was employed by the Parisian newspaper Le Petit Journal as chief correspondent. In 1892, Pierre Giffard founded Le Velo, widely considered to be one of the first sports newspaper produced in France. He formerly had been a journalist with the daily Le Figaro before becoming desk editor of Le Petit Journal, on whose behalf he had created Paris - Brest - Paris the year before, in 1891. From its inception, this new publication faced competition from several rivals. Principal among these was Paris-Velo directed by Henri Desgrange a determined cycling competitor.

However, the paper's influence soon found its limits. Pierre Giffard was imprudent enough to openly side with Alfred Dreyfus. (Dreyfus was an officer in the French military accused of treason and, not insignificantly, a Jew: his trial was socially divisive and a defining moment in late-nineteenth century French history.) Newspapers of the era were linked directly with political groupings: competition was not simply a matter of commercial success, but, as importantly, a way of building political influence. This willingness to use the publication to serve his political ends did not sit well with a good part of his readership, with the consequence that Baron Jules-Albert de Dion (is a pioneer of the automobile industry in France and a French politician) and other industrialists broke with Le Velo and started to think about the creation of a rival publication. This was to become L'Auto-Velo.

Baron Jules-Albert de Dion
The founding of L'Auto-Velo took place at the time of the Exposition Universelle (Paris World Fair) and the Olympic Games, on October 16, 1900. Baron de Dion conferred the direction of the new publication on Henri Desgrange, who took on Victor Goddet to assume day-to-day management. The mandate of the journal was to promote automobile and the cycling commercial enterprise.

Cycling at the Athens 1896 Olympics.

Cycling at the 1900 Summer Olympics. Men's sprint.

Le Velo and L'Auto-Velo became embroiled in a bitter competition. While the newcomer benefited from the innovation of special correspondents who relayed results from all the important races, and from an emphasis of the international dimension of the sport, its rival possessed a significant advantage: its patronage of several of the most important bike races.

L'Auto-Velo hung on by using clever tactics. For instance, eight weeks after Le Velo had held the Paris-Bordeaux cycle race, Henri Desgrange organised a similar race on the same race route. The winner of this later race beat the time of the winner of the first race by four hours. The growth of sales of the new publication reacted positively to this exploit.

Henri Desgrange: Racing cyclist and French sports journalist. (Paris 1865 - Beauvallon 1940). Between 1893 and 1895 he held twelve world track cycling records. Prominent among these was the hour record 35.325 kilometers, May 11, 1893. His name remains associated with the Tour de France which he founded in 1903. He is also remembered as one of the founders of the periodical L'Auto.

Le Velo responded by attacking L'Auto-Velo on the legal front, for infringing on the journal's name. The court found in Giffard's favour and Desgrange was compelled to amputate the name of his paper. L'Auto-Velo became L'Auto on January 16, 1903.

Battered but not beaten, Henri Desgrange took up the idea of one of his colleagues, George Lefevre, to organise a race on a large scale: the Tour de France. The chief cycling journalist, a 26-year-old named Géo Lefèvre suggested a six-day race of the sort popular on the track but all around France. Long-distance cycle races were a popular means to sell more newspapers. Desgrange and Lefèvre discussed it after lunch. Desgrange was doubtful but the paper's financial director, Victor Goddet, was enthusiastic. He handed Desgrange the keys to the company safe and said: "Take whatever you need." L'Auto announced the race on 19 January 1903.

Using the same methods as his predecessor Richard Lesclide, Henri Desgrange ensured the success of the Tour through its promotion in L'Auto, and the success of the Tour was important to the promotion of the newspaper. It was no mistake that the leader of the Tour de France wore a jersey coloured yellow. Yellow was the colour of the paper on which the newspaper was printed. Le Velo never recovered from the growing popularity of its rival and ceased publication in November 1904.

The press relished the race's extreme demands and suffering of its contestants. Journalists outdid one another in their descriptions of the cyclists' "ravaged" and "gaunt" faces. Cyclists who gave up or simply collapsed on the side of the road were "fallen comrades." These phrases meant much in a nation that lost more than one million men in WW-I.

The Tour promised not just fame, but money. The finish line marked the divide between working class woes and middle class comfort.

Following the creation of the Tour de France, for the next forty years, L'Auto came to dominate the sporting press in an almost monopolistic fashion. The paper's headquarters, at 10 rue du Faubourg-Montmartre, would never be troubled by its nearest competitor - L'Echo des Sports - which collapsed very quickly. L'Auto, which had a circulation of 300,000 throughout the 1920's saw its sales double during July, the month of the Tour de France.

But from 1935, the paper began to face competition from the sports pages of the general press - particularly those of Paris-Soir, and from sports-specific publications. On losing ground, L'Auto fought back by changing its format under the direction of Jacques Goddet (son of Victor) who was the young editor-in-chief at that time. He took over direction of the publication with the death of Henri Desgrange in 1940. During the difficult time of the Occupation, he kept the publication going: something for which he would later be reproached.

L'Auto ceased publication the 17th of August 1944, just on the point of the liberation of Paris. Blacklisted by the press ordonances of Algiers, the newspaper was banned and, on Liberation the assets of the journal were sequestered. Eighteen months.  http://www.randonneursontario.ca/history/henri.html


Everest of sailing or Ocean warriors.

The Volvo Ocean Race is the worlds most prestigious race. This race is one of the pinnacles of yacht racing, mostly professionally crewed.  www.kriter.tv/history/whitbread_history.pdf‎

More than just a yacht race, the Volvo Ocean Race sees the sports elite take on Mother Nature in a test of skill, bravery and survival. The Race sends superfast sloops circling the globe the hard way.

The event is a 9month marathon of the seas, they race passing through 4 oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian and Southern Oceans) and 5 continents (Asia, Africa, North America, South America and Europe) held every 3-4years.

For almost 40years, the Volvo Ocean Race has provided the ultimate test in sailing, providing human drama and sporting excitement on a scale like no other.

Following the prevailing winds, the course is deliberately plotted through some of Earths most inhospitable environments. As a result, the boats in the race can expect to face three-story swells, iceberg-strewn seas, and ship-swallowing squalls.

Sailings elite will be pushed to the limits of endurance  and sometimes beyond. The worst weather conditions are usually encountered in the Southern Ocean where waves sometimes top 30m and winds can reach 110km/h. Sailing around the clock, the 11(12)-person crews suffer for speed. Fresh food, mattresses, pillows, and even reading material are too heavy. Everyone shares a single cabin, which wouldnt be so bad if they had the time and the means to bathe.These men will exist on as little as two hours sleep a day, face temperatures from -15°C to 40°C and tackle hunger and extreme fatigue.

For 24hours a day, seven days a week they only have one goal: to make their yacht go faster.
The Volvo Open yachts are the fastest monohull boats in the world, capable of speeds of more than 40mph.They represent the cutting edge of design, construction and communications, taking influence from aerospace and military technology.

The winning crew doesnt get a cash prize but they can count on a crystal trophy, a slap on the back, and perhaps sailings best bragging rights.Winning the race does not attract a cash prize, as the feat of competing is presented as sufficient reward. Many of the contestants in the Volvo Ocean Race tend to go into other professional teams after the race, such as certain members of Oracle Team USA.

Pleasure-craft, or what we now know as yachts, have existed among maritime nations from the most remote period; but the records of these gorgeous vessels of antiquity have perished except in fragments to be found scattered here and there among the writings of ancient authors.

Polynesia began with the voyaging canoe more than three thousand years ago. The Polynesians are believed to have invented the beam that increased the stability of canoes.
The beginnings of yachting date back to the 4th centuryBC when the Egyptians used wind to power their papyrus boats to travel the Nile river.

Yachting, that is recreational boating, is very old as exemplified in the ancient Roman poem Catullus 4:

The yacht you see there, friends,
says that shes been
The fastest piece of timber ever seen;
She swears that once she could have overhauled
All rival boats, whether the challenge called
For racing under canvas or with oars. (84-54 BC)

The Romans, Phoenicians, Greeks and Chinese continued improving the key characteristics of sailboats.

In the Middle Ages, this area was dominated by the Spaniards, Portuguese and English.

South American sailing rafts
At one time, anthropologists and historians disputed whether aboriginal South Americans had sails on their rafts prior to European contact, but this question seems to have been pretty soundly answered, as sailing rafts were recorded by Europeans within just a few years of first contact, and it seems highly unlikely that sails would have been adopted so quickly. Furthermore, the method of steering was one unknown to Europeans at that time, and if the sail had been adopted from them, it seems certain that the rudder would have been as well.

It will be noticed that all of the yachts carry lee-boards. When the lee-board was first used or by whom it was invented, is not known. It is probable that the idea was introduced into Holland during the occupation of the Netherlands by Spain, by some ancient Spanish navigator from the Pacific, as Prescott relates in his Conquest of Peru that in 1531 Pizarro commanded an expedition, consisting of two vessels under the immediate charge of the famous old pilot, Bartholomew Ruiz.

A portrait of a balsa which shows the arrangement and working of the boards. This craft may he regarded as the first embodiment of the lee-board, sliding keel, revolving keel, centreboard, and fin keel. It is evident that this device made an impression upon the minds of the early navigators. It certainly seems probable that the idea may have been introduced into Holland from the Pacific by the Spanish, together with the construction, rig, and decoration of the ships of Holland at that period.

The Dutch Started it All. The word `yacht is from the Dutch word `jacht`. With so much water all around and so much wealth in 17th century, little wonder that the Dutch were the first to creating yachting as a sport. And for the same reasons, little wonder that Holland is still a major yacht builder.

from the Dutch jacht short for hunting ship

Yacht (pronounced /jɒt/ from Dutch/Low German jacht meaning hunting or hunt, compare Standard German/High German Jagd) was originally defined as a light, fast sailing vessel used by the Dutch navy to pursue pirates and other transgressors around and into the shallow waters of the Low Countries. They were also used for non-military governmental roles such as customs duties and delivering pilots to waiting ships. The latter use attracted the attention of wealthy Dutch merchants who began to build private yachts so they could be taken out to greet their returning ships.

Soon wealthy individuals began to use their jachts for pleasure trips. By the start of the 17th century jachts came in two broad catergories- speel-jachts for sport and oorlog-jachts for naval duties. By the middle of the century large jacht' fleets were found around the Dutch coast and the Dutch states organised large 'reviews' of private and war yachts for special occasions, thus putting in place the groundwork for the modern sport of yachting. Jachts of this period varied greatly in size, from around 12m in length to being equal to the lower classes of the ship of the line. All had a form of fore/aft gaff rig with a flat bottom and lee boards to allow operations in shallow waters.

Philip II of Spain maintained his hold upon Flanders and Brabant but in 1580 the seven other provinces formed themselves into the Republic of the United Netherlands, and by their situation were naturally led to commercial pursuits. In these they rapidly excelled. Amsterdam rose to be a city of the first rank, the centre of commerce in Europe. From remote times, the people of Holland have been celebrated for their skill and industry upon the ocean. They were the first to develop the whale and herring fisheries, which proved not only a source of great wealth, but were the nursery of a splendid race of seamen.

In looking over the narratives of voyages of the early Dutch navigators, frequent mention of yachts.

In 1598 the Dutch East India Company sent out six great ships and two yachts for India, under command of Cornelius Hemskike, which sailed out of the Texel on the 1st of May, "and coming together to the Cape of Good Hope in August, were separated by a terrible storm. Four of them and a yacht put into the Isle of Maurice, Madagascar; the other two ships and yacht put into the Isle of St.Mary,Madagascar, where they made stay, but sailing thence, arrived on the November 1598, before Bantam,Java,Indonesia; and a month after them came the other four ships and yacht from the Island Maurice."

Yachting may be termed the poetry of the sea. No other sport or pastime has been so interwoven with romance and countless memories of daring deeds and glorious achievements. Further, it is among the most ancient, as well as the noblest, of sports; and as mastery by fair means is the essence of every sport, no other can compare in interest and excitement with mastery upon the sea.

057 The History of Yachting.pngYacht Owned by the Burgomasters of Amsterdam in the year 1600

The most ancient yacht of which diligent and careful research has been able to discover a portrait, is one that was owned by the burgomasters of Amsterdam about the year 1600. The original picture is executed by Rool, in India ink on parchment. Worn by age, it nevertheless gives the details of the hull and rig with the fidelity and minuteness for which the artists of Holland are justly famous. This yacht was probably used by the burgomasters in their various official duties afloat, to their great comfort and enjoyment: a portrait is also given of the yacht owned by Maurice of Nassau, the younger son of William the Silent, who died at The Hague on April 23,1625.

Yacht Owned by Maurice of Nassau 1625

A River with Fishermen drawing a Net . Willem van de Velde 1630

Sometime in the early 1600s, the idea of sailing for private pleasure started to take root in the Netherlands. Later that century, during the Cromwellian years, King Charles II of England was in exile in the Netherlands and while there he became aware of this new and exciting pastime. He returned to England in 1660 aboard a Dutch yacht Mary. During his reign Charles commissioned 24 Royal Yachts on top of the two presented to him by Dutch states on his restoration.

The arrival of King Charles II in Rotterdam, may 24.1660 (Lieve Pietersz. Verschuier1665)
The King was happy with the boat and has often used it for leisure. It was such a new thing for England (both for its form and for the unusual function) in those years that it soon became a status symbol for the nobility, who started commissioning similar boats because, as we know, everybody wants to be a King..

As the fashion for yachting spread throughout the English aristocracy yacht races began to become common. Other rich individuals in Europe built yachts as the sport spread. Yachting therefore became a purely recreational form of sailing with no commercial or military function.

In 1661 John Evelyn recorded a competition between Katherine and Anne, two large royal sailing vessels both of English design, the race from Greenwich to Gravesend and back. One of the vessels was owned, and sometimes steered, by Charles II, the King of England. The king lost.

St. Petersburg 1716 (A. Zubov)
The first yacht club in the world - the Neva Yacht Club, located in Saint Petersburg,Russia, close to the Neva River.  Was founded by tsar Peter the Great on April12,1718 (likely, the idea had deviced as early as 1716, when the First Neva Shipyard started building civilian vessels). The tsar provided 141small ships to entertain members of the aristocracy.

the Prince Henry "Father of Yacht-racing"
Yacht-racing in England dates from the year 1775; and while many a man, at various times and places, has been called the Father of Yachting but there can be no doubt that the Prince Henry, the Duke of Cumberland is justly entitled the "Father of Yacht-racing" He was a brother of King George III, was an admiral in the Royal Navy, and was greatly interested in yachts and yachting.

A Royal Yacht 1775

On June1775, a new entertainment called a regatta, introduced from Venice into England, was held on the Thames (the Historical Regatta in Venice, every year, the most traditional among the venetian events, which took place for the first time in the 1315). As we have seen, rowing matches had been held on the Thames between watermen for many years, but this first regatta was probably more in the nature of a social function or fête. The regatta included rowing races by professional boatmen, along with more sedate social boating, and was preceded by a grand ball.

Regatta Ball at Ranelagh Gardens by the banks of the Thames in Chelsea, Millbank, London, June1775.
By degrees, yacht-racing has become the popular feature of yachting, though early history shows that yachts enjoyed a flourishing existence for nearly two centuries before racing came into fashion.
In England, custom-built racing "yachts" began to emerge

Frank Wright. New Zealand 1860-1923. Scows on the Hard, Coxs Creek
The Heather Cup -Contested annually as part of the Auckland Anniversary Regatta, New Zealand (the largest single-day regatta in the world), itself founded in 1850, yearly occasions since establishment (halted briefly during the Boer/South African War).

Bringing yacht racing to the forefront of public life, the Americas Cup was first raced in 1851 between the New York Yacht Club and the Royal Yacht Squadron.

Queen Victoria was watching a sailing race. As the schooner, named America, passed the Royal Yacht in first position, and saluted by dipping its ensign three times, Queen Victoria asked one of her attendants to tell her who was in second place."Your Majesty, there is no second," came the reply. That phrase, just four words, is still the best description of the Americas Cup, and how it represents the singular pursuit of excellence. Not ruled or regulated by measurement criteria as today, it is interesting to note the second place finisher was Aurora. This was more than a simple boat race however, as it symbolised a great victory for the new world over the old, a triumph that unseated Great Britain as the worlds undisputed maritime power. Subsequently, the Cup races were conducted, usually every 3-4years.

In 1851, the American Yacht Club in New York invited their members to the first competition, thus establishing the famous tradition of the American Cup. The first regatta was won by the local club which they had kept till 1983 when it was taken over by the Australia II yacht. The Americas Cup is without a doubt the most difficult trophy in sport to win. In the more than 150years since that first race off England, only four nations have won what is often called the "oldest trophy in international sport."

Clipper Ships -greyhounds of the sea

The tea clippers were small, fast, cargo carrying sailing ships. They were fast, yachtlike vessels, with three masts and a square rig. Clippers sailed all over the world, primarily on the trade routes between the United Kingdom and its colonies in the east. The boom years of the clipper ship era began in 1843 as a result of the growing demand for a more rapid delivery of tea from China. It continued under the stimulating influence of the discovery of gold in California and Australia in 1848 and 1851and ended with the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. With the completion of the Suez Canal the tea trade was taken over by steamships and most of the clippers transferred to the Australian trade, carrying general cargo to either Sydney or Melbourne, and returning with wool, for which a premium price was also paid on the first shipments of the season. These vessels were capable of sailing nearly 20knots and were able to average more than 400nm in a 24hour period. This was made possible by their long narrow hull shape and sharp bow.

Donald McKays Sovereign of the Seas reported the highest speed ever achieved by a sailing ship-22 knots(41km/h), made while running her easting down to Australia in 1854

465nm(861km)days run of the Champion of the Seas

The California Gold Rush(1848-1855). Of the 300 000 people, approximately half arrived by sea and half came overland from the east.


The career of naval architect and shipwright Donald McKay was spent in the pursuit of speed under sail and perfection of the clipper ship form. McKay achieved perfection in a vessel designed specifically for the Australian trade across the Roaring Forties of the Great Southern Ocean. Thermopylae made the slightly shorter passage from London to Melbourne, 21160km in just 61days in 1868-69.

In the Great Tea Race of 1866, four such ships held an unofficial race, and this inspired the name of the modern day race. Premium prices were paid for the season's first consignment of tea from China to reach London. Only four of the nine were really competing for the prize. The race took over 3months, crossing the South China Sea, through the Sunda Strait of Indonesia, across the Indian Ocean, around the Cape of Good Hope of Africa, and up the Atlantic Ocean to the English Channel. This was the fastest route for one ship to take, as the Suez Canal was still under construction. The three tea clippers had taken just 102days to sail three quarters of the way around the globe. After 99days and almost 26000 km the leaders were still tied and raced side by side the full length of the English Channel and into the Thames. Taeping, under Captain McKinnon, drew less water and was able to tie up in the London docks 20min ahead of Ariel under Captain Keay.

: First Trans-Atlantic Race. The Great Ocean Race, as the newspapers call it, begins off New Jerseys Sandy Hook point in New York Harbor. James Gordon Bennett, publisher of the New York Herald, helms Henrietta to victory as she reaches Lizard Point, England, in 13days 21hours 55min. Trans-ocean racing is still a relatively new sport, but was simply unheard of in the 19th century. Remarkably, after 3000miles of intense sailing all three yachts finished within hours of each other.

Chicago to Mackinac -founded in 1898 with 5boats, the race runs from Chicago to Mackinac Island on the northern tip of Michigan covering over 333miles of freshwater racing.
It is the oldest annual freshwater distance race in the world. After 52hours 17min 50sec-Vanenna claimed her place in history as the first winner of the Race to Mackinac Island. Siren placed second, 37min 20sec behind her nemesis, but beat the schooner Hawthorne by 45min. Steve Fossett set the overall race record, 18hours, 50min in 1998 with the multihull yacht, Stars and Stripes. Roy E. Disney set the monohull record, 23hours30min in Pyewacket in 2002. The race hosts several hundred competitors each year and over 3000sailors.

schooner La Paloma 1906
Transpacific -one of the oldest races, the Transpac Honolulu Race, as it is known, started in 1906 with only three boats. Originally the race was to take place between San Francisco and Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, but the 1906 fire moved the starting line to San Pedro, CA. It is predominately a downwind race and covers 2225miles. Fully Crewed Multihull Elapsed time: Explorer (86' catamaran), 1997 of 5days,9hours,18min,26sec (races record). Monohull Dorade yacht wins first overall in 2013 making it the oldest boat in the to win and a 2 time winner (built in 1929) having won the Transpac in 1936, 77years prior!

The 1920s had seen the birth of classic ocean races such as the Bermuda Race. In 1923 the race runs from Newport to Bermuda. The sailing distance is 1175km across open ocean and the Gulf Stream. The winner of that first race was the 38-foot yawl Tammerlane.

Thomas Fleming Day, founder of the Bermuda Race

1925: Britains Entrance Into Ocean Racing. After witnessing a 1924 Rhode Island-to-Bermuda race, a young Englishman, Weston Martyr, was so impressed with the concept of long-distance racing that he wrote a letter to an English yachting magazine. It is, he wrote, without question, the very finest sport a man can possibly engage in, for to play this game at all it is necessary to possess, in the very highest degree, those hallmarks of a true sportsman: skill, courage, and endurance. The following year, the first Fastnet Challenge Cup, spearheaded by Martyr, is held. The 990km course starts at the Isle of Wight, sails around Fastnet Rock and on to Plymouth, England. 7boats compete, only 4 finish.

1960: First Trans-Atlantic Solo Regatta. In Gypsy Moth III, a 12m sloop, Briton Francis Chichester sets out from Plymouth, England, for the first Observer Single-handed Trans-Atlantic Race it is run from Plymouth to the USA, and is held every four years. Chichester completes the passage in 40days. 115people expressed an interest in the race, and there were eight entries, of whom five actually took part.

But, in 1964, Sir Francis Chichester completed a solo circumnavigation in his yacht Gipsy Moth IV with the stated object of completing the passage in the shortest possible time. Francis begins his single-handed circumnavigation in Gipsy Moth IV, a 16m ketch, leaving from Plymouth, England. 9months later he returns, becoming the first person to sail solo around the world with just one stop (in Sydney, Australia). Francis feat later becomes the inspiration for such races as the Golden Globe, the Whitbread Round the World Race and the Vendée Globe. This injected asense of competition and sport into an undertaking that had previously been counted a very daring adventure. Francis voyage attracted huge worldwide publicity and inspired many a young sailor to dreams of emulating his achievement.

The Sunday Times Golden Globe Race was a non-stop, single-handed, round-the-world yacht race, held in 1968-1969, and was the first round-the-world yacht race. The race was controversial due to the failure by most competitors to finish the race and because of the suicide of one entrant; however, it ultimately led to the founding of the BOC Challenge and Vendée Globe round-the-world races, both of which continue to be successful and popular.  The race was sponsored by the British Sunday Times newspaper and was designed to capitalise on a number of individual round-the-world voyages which were already being planned by various sailors; for this reason, there were no qualification requirements, and competitors were offered the opportunity to join and permitted to start at any time between 1June and 31 October1968.

Robin Knox-Johnston

9 sailors started the race; 4 retired before leaving the Atlantic Ocean. Of the five remaining, Chay Blyth, who had set off with absolutely no sailing experience, sailed past the Cape of Good Hope before retiring; Nigel Tetley sank with 2000km to go while leading; Donald Crowhurst, who attempted to fake a round-the-world voyage, began to show signs of mental illness, and then committed suicide; and Bernard Moitessier, who rejected the philosophy behind a commercialised competition, abandoned the race while in a strong position to win and kept sailing non-stop until he reached Tahiti after circling the globe one and a half times. Robin Knox-Johnston was the only entrant to complete the race, becoming the first person to sail single-handed and non-stop around the world. He was awarded both prizes, and later donated the £5000 to a fund supporting Crowhursts family.

These early contests led to the creation of a "proper" race around the world in fully crewed yachts. In 1972 Englands Royal Naval Sailing Association and British brewers Whitbread company agreed to sponsor a globe-circling regatta, which would be called the 'Whitbread Round the World Yacht Race'.
The original course was designed to follow the route of the square riggers, which had carried cargo around the world during the 19th Century.

 Clipper Route

Tea clipper route

1973-74: First Whitbread Round the World Race

17yachts of various sizes and shapes and 167 crew started the first race of 50900km in four legs, which began from Portsmouth,United Kingdom on September 8,1973. Approximately 3000spectator boats set out to witness the historic start. In separate incidences three sailors are swept overboard, never to be seen again. The lucky majority 14boats cross the finish line, also in Portsmouth, some 9months after the starting shot was fired. The crew of the Mexican yacht Sayula II and Captain Ramón Carlin successfully won the overall race in 133days and 13hours. Her actual time was 152days.

1977-78: Stiffening Safety Measures

In reaction to the previous races three fatalities, the race committee steps up safety precautions, mandating a minimum boat length of 15.2m. All 15 entries complete the 49600km race, and no one is lost at sea. Skipper Cornelius van Rietschoten won the race witch ketch Flyer- 119days 1hourhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kcGXxvHgC_Y

1981-82: Storm-Blasted but Still Going

The third Whitbread(26095nm) is also devoid of casualties, unless you count the boats. Of the 29competing yachts, 21 arrive storm-damaged at the second race port, Cape Town,South Africa one having been seized by an Angolan gunboat and its crew detained for a week under suspicion of spying. Only 20 finished the race out of the 29 that started it. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ZEZFLzjdIg

Cornelis van Rietschoten was a Dutch yacht skipper who was the only skipper to win the Whitbread Round the World Yacht Race twice.

1985-86: Success Amid Recession

The 1985-86 field 15boats is down from 29 entrants in 1981-82, perhaps due to the global economic downturn; the teams are already largely corporate sponsored. All 15 entries finish the 26740nm race. L'Esprit d'Equipe skippered by Lionel Péan won the race in a corrected time of 111days 23hours.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HwYHSXomISI

Drum - The Journey Of A Lifetime is a 60min film documentary featuring Simon Le Bon English musician, best known as the singer of the band Duran Duran.

Narrated by Simon Le Bon, the video follows the incredible eight month journey of Drum, a 77foot maxi yacht competing in the prestigious Whitbread Round the World Race. Some months before Le Bon was racing his co-owned Drum in the Fastnet race when the boat capsized, trapping himself and 5 crew members inside which nearly claimed their lives. Before being rescued, Le Bon and other crew members were trapped underwater, inside the hull, for 40min.

1989-90: Adding Legs and Length

The Whitbread Round the World Race was run 60000km(32018nm) with several classes (for size of boat).The race committee adds two legs and 5000nm(9260km) to the already grueling course, largely due to anti-apartheid pressure to avoid South Africa. The vast difference in speed and capability of the many different boats involved in the 1989 to 1990 race lead to the creation of a committee to examine the commission of a Whitbread class boat for use in future races. Many of the Maxi yachts in this years race were nearly twice the size of the smallest, and carried well over twice the sail area. The net result of this was that many of the smaller boats finished the longer legs more than ten days after the leg winner. On the course, which now begins and ends in Southampton, England, calamity abounds. 6 boats of 23 competing see crew members thrown overboard during Leg2, all are rescued.

In Leg3 a sailor is washed into the sea and retrieved an hour later but cant be revived. The boat Creightons Naturally suffered a serious broach, at about 3 in the morning. Crew members Anthony Philips and Bart van den Dwey were swept over board. They were both pulled back on deck. Van den Dwey successfully resuscitated, but, after three hours of trying, crew members were unable to revive Philips.

The Whitbread begins to attract worldwide publicity, thanks in no small part to its first all-female crew, skippered by Tracy Edwards.
In Leg4 a yacht loses its keel and capsizes, its crew survives.

Fazisi yacht was built in the Soviet Union, first introduced the USSR in these competitions. Captain- Alex Gryshchenko. After the finish line in Punta del Este (Uruguay) Alex disappeared. A few days later Alex found hanging from a palm tree. One version- suicide. After the tragic death of Alexei took command of a yacht known American yachtsman Skip Novak.

Sir Peter James Blake,New Zealand yachtsman won the Race with yacht Steinlager 2 -128days 9hours. In honour of his services to yachting, Blake was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1995. Blake was shot by pirates while monitoring environment change on the Amazon River on 5December2001. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ob2lr4xIsd4

1993-94: A New Class of Competitor

Before the 1993-94 race, the organizers, working with sailors and designers, draw up specifications for a new class of boat intended specifically for the Whitbread: the Whitbread60 (today called the Volvo Ocean 60). Allowing for variations in hull and keel designs, the new class is intended to increase safety and make scoring easier without stifling competition but first it will have to prove itself in a mixed field.Of the 1993-94 races 15entries, 10 are Whitbread60-class boats. The Whitbread60s prove comparatively sluggish in slight winds but speedy in the strongest gales and hard-wearing in the wickedest seas. The competitors were none too keen or running both Maxis and W60's together. The two competing classes battled throughout with protest flags always at the ready. Skipper Grant Dalton (has competed in 5 races) conceded afterwards however that the race should only have one class in future, to avoid similar squabbles. Intrum Justitia skipper Roger Nilson was injured on the first leg. New Zealand Endeavour skippered by Grant Dalton won the 31975nm(60000km) long race in a time of 120days 5hours.


Clipper Round the World Yacht Race -established by Sir Robin Knox-Johnston, the first man to perform a single-handed non-stop circumnavigation of the globe, the first Clipper race took place in 1996. The race is sailed in a fleet of 10 one-design boats that are designed and built specifically for the race. Each yacht is crewed by a professional skipper and paying novice sailors. It is the longest yacht race, with multiple stopovers and taking 10months to complete the circumnavigation. The event gives paying amateur crew members the chance to sail around the world. The organizers own a fleet of identical yachts, and provide qualified skippers to lead each team. Crew can either sign up for the whole race, or one or more legs. The Clipper race uses lighter, faster boats and the route follows the prevailing currents and winds.

1997-98: Leveling the Playing Field

The seventh Whitbread(31600nm) is the first to limit entry to a single class of boat, the Whitbread60. The new regulations help raise the average team-sponsorship outlay to around 10million USdollars. Perhaps as a result, the race draws 10boats, the smallest Whitbread field up to this point. Equipped with satellite technology, each crew sends regular e-mails, audio, and video to the official race Web site, allowing fans to follow the action as it happens. Volvo had its first major association with the race in 1997 to 1998 by sponsoring the trophy. Paul Pierre Cayard is an American yachtsman and he has competed at multiple world championship level sailing events, including the Americas Cup, the Whitbread Round the World Race and the Olympic Gameshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wEQQSDUEMNQ

2001-02: A Race Rechristened

This time the contest now called the Volvo Ocean Race(31600nm), after new sponsor Volvo Car Corporation may be tougher than ever. Every leg is now weighted evenly, so crews will have to be equally at home in the high-stakes sprints as in the marathon stretches. This time, however they finish in Kiel after stopovers in La Rochelle and Göteborg. Germany,France and Sweden being the Volvos three biggest car markets in Europe. John Kostecki with the German yacht Illbruck Challenge captained his first Volvo Ocean race winner in 2002. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5IvIzwFf6FE

2005-06: Swedens Prince Carl Philip has agreed to become patron of the Volvo Ocean Race(57000 km). Was the first to not begin in the United Kingdom. Start from Vigo,Spain. A new design of boat, the Volvo Open 70 was also used for the first time in this race. The new boats were 2m longer and about 1000kg lighter than the VO60's used in the previous race. During Leg7 of the race Hans Horrevoets of The Netherlands was swept overboard from ABN Amro II. Although he was recovered from the water, attempts to resuscitate him were not successful.

May18 was a black day in the life of Petra van Rij. Her husband, 32year-old Hans Horrevoets, overboard and drowned during the Race on the Atlantic Ocean. Petra is left with a toddler and a half and is pregnant with their second child. The crew of Movistar abandoned ship after the aft end of their keel pivot broke away from their hull in the night of 20May.The 2005/06 race had tighter restrictions on the number of crew members allowed than previous races. An all-male crew was restricted to ten, while a crew with at least 5women could have 11members, and an all-female crew could have 12. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WPCEsS-Yh60

2008-09: During Leg1 "Ericsson 4" skippered by Torben Grael, broke the monohull 24hour distance record when he sailed 1104km, an average of 24.85kn(46.02km/h).

It was expected that 140000people would visit Galway,Irland during the Stopover but the final total significantly outnumbered half a million, with some early reports suggesting that over 600000people had come to Galway to view the boats.

The chief executive of the race was Knut Frostad.

2011-12: On 5November2011 Abu Dhabi Ocean Racing lost its mast within hours of the races beginning during heavy winds and high seas near Alicante.

On 6November2011 Team Sanya was forced to head to port after damaging its hull. Team suffered rudder and hull damage on 22March and were forced to return to New Zealand.

Camper with Emirates Team New Zealand, skippered by Chris Nicholson from Australia, in rough weather, on the approach to the finish of Leg8. ..On the last night we had a few moments where we were going at 38knots down waves in the dark  thats not right. I think I got the record for top speed with 39knots or so but trust me its not a record you want.. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nfvcq1Y9fgU

The 2014-15 race is set to last 39379nm, which is the longest route in its history.

For the first time, the race will be a one-design. The Volvo One-Design was designed by Farr Yacht Design in response to concerns about safety and cost. The Race will ensure a minimum of 8boats are built. The aim is to reduce participation cost to around 15million euros per entry.


The Protection and partnership for mutual benefit.


Protected areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognised natural, ecological and cultural values. Protected areas are cultural artifacts, and their story is entwined with that of human civilization.

One of the main concerns regarding protected areas on land and sea is their effectiveness at preventing the ongoing loss of BIODIVERSITY.

Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life. This can refer to genetic variation, species variation, or ecosystem variation within an area, biome, or planet.

There are over 161 000 protected areas in the world (as of October 2010) with more added daily, representing between 10 - 15 percent of the world's land surface area. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_protected_areas_in_the_world

Protected areas by percentage per country. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2f/Protected_areas_by_percentage_per_country.png

Only 1.17% of the world's oceans is included in the worlds 6800 Marine Protected Areas. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_Protected_Area




There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the enabling laws of each country or the regulations of the international organizations involved.

The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) is the most comprehensive global spatial dataset on marine and terrestrial protected areas available.

Protected Planet is the only global dataset on protected areas, in existence since 1981, a report of which is released annually. - http://www.protectedplanet.net/#3_15.25_-14.75_0

Since 1981 The United Nations Environment Programme, World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC), through its Protected Areas Programme, has been compiling this information and making it available to the global community. The WDPA is a joint project of UNEP and International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), produced by UNEP-WCMC and the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas working with governments and collaborating non-governmental organizations.

WDPA - http://www.wdpa.org/

IUCN - International Union for Conservation of Nature http://www.iucn.org/ - have six commissions http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IUCN

UNEP/WCMC - The United Nations Environment Programme, World Conservation Monitoring Centre   http://www.unep-wcmc.org/

UNEP -United Nations Environment Programme  http://www.unep.org/

A UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) World Heritage Site is a place (such as a forest, mountain, lake, island, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that is listed by UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance. - http://en.unesco.org/

UN - United Nations - http://www.un.org/en/

The Man and the Biosphere Programme of UNESCO was established in 1971 to promote interdisciplinary approaches to management, research and education in ecosystem conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.

The first 58 biosphere reserves were nominated in 1976. The MAB programmes primary achievement is the creation in 1977 of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves.
To date, 621 biosphere reserves in 117 countries, including 12 transboundary sites, have been included in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Network_of_Biosphere_Reserves

Protecting places and resources is by no means a modern concept!

Noah is the first animal conservationist for protecting all land and air animal and fowl species from extinction during the Great Flood.

Beginning with Genesis 6:14, God gives instructions to Noah to build a waterproof vessel that would house his immediate family, along with a sample of animal life. God told Noah that he, his sons, his wife, his sons wives, and two of each kind of beast `male and female` would survive in the Ark (Genesis 6:1-22). Seven days before the Flood, God told Noah to enter the Ark with his household, and to take seven pairs of every clean animal and every bird, and one pair of every other animal, to keep their kind alive (Genesis 7:1-5). The story of Noah's Ark is told in the Hebrew Bible.


During the most recent ice age, from about 20,000 years ago, large mammals such as bison roam on the sub-arctic tundra of Europe and Asia. They are preyed upon by two groups of hunters, both much smaller and weaker than themselves - but both with a sufficiently developed social system to enable them to hunt and kill in packs. These hunters are humans and wolves.

The typical pack of wolves and of humans is surprisingly similar. It is family-based, led by a dominant male whose female partner is likely to have an authority second only to his. Members of the group are friendly to each other but deeply suspicious of outsiders. All members are protective of the newly born and the young. Both species are good at interpreting the moods of others in the group, whether through facial expression or other forms of body language.
Humans and wolves are competing for the same prey, but there are advantages for both in teaming up. For the wolf, human ingenuity and the use of weapons. For humans, the wolf's speed and ferocity is equivalent to a new weapon.
For mutual benefit the partnership is natural. So, undoubtedly, is how it first comes about.

Lions and wolves communicate well enough to hunt as a group. Bees can tell each other where the best pollen is. For almost the whole of human history, from at least 3 million years ago, mankind has lived by carrying out these two basic activities of hunting, fishing and gathering edible items of any kind. Basically, as hunter-gatherers, we have lived by doing what comes naturally.

The Neolithic Revolution - The change comes a mere 10000 years ago, when people first discover how to cultivate crops and to domesticate animals. This is the most significant single development in human history. It happens within the Stone Age, for tools are still flint rather than metal, but it is the dividing line which separates the old Stone Age (palaeolithic) from the new Stone Age (neolithic).

The first reason for herding sheep and goats, or keeping cattle and pigs in the village, is to secure a regular supply of fresh meat. The hunter is dependent on the luck of the chase; if more animals are killed than can be immediately consumed, meals from the surplus will be increasingly unpleasant as the days go by. The herdsman, by contrast, has a living larder always to hand and a supply of dairy products as well.

Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. The earliest known evidence of a domesticated dog is a jawbone found in a cave in Iraq and dated to about 12000 years ago.
The first animals known to have been domesticated as a source of food are sheep in the Middle East in a settlement at Shanidar, in what is now northern Iraq, dated to about 9000 years ago.
Wild animals are naturally timid and flighty because they are constantly faced by predators; domestic animals do not need such a nervous disposition, as they are protected by their human owners. In terms of survival, those species which have developed a relationship with man have far outstripped their wild cousins.
Dogs were commonly used to hunt and to protect herds of sheep and cattle.

The ending of the most recent cold phase of the present ice age. This creates new temperate regions, in which humans can live comfortably. By contrast many of their main victims in the chase cannot survive in the changed climate. Herds of bison move to colder regions. Mammoths become extinct. But plants of all kinds grow more easily in the new temperate zones. It is not hard to imagine, in these circumstances, a strong human impulse to abandon the pursuit of the bison and to stay, instead, in a region where edible plants are now growing in sufficient profusion to seem worth encouraging and protecting (by weeding around them, for example). Some human groups adapt to a new way of life.

The first farmers - from weeding around a plant, or perhaps watering it in a dry spell, it is a small step to collecting its seeds and planting them in a protected spot where they will have a better than average chance of growing.

Farming began c. 10,000 BC on land that became known as the Fertile Crescent. Hunter-gatherers, who had traveled to the area in search of food, began to harvest wild grains they found growing there. They scattered spare grains on the ground to grow more food. Farmers grew tall, wild grasses, including an early type of barley, and primitive varieties of wheat called emmer and einkorn. These naturally produced large grains (seeds) that were tasty and nourishing.

We plow and water the land so that our crops can thrive, and we provide food and protection to the animals we need. This is why the emergence of societies based on agriculture, what we call agrarian societies, involved a complex interplay of plants, animals, climate, and weather with human tools, techniques and social habits.

The theme of kinship with Earth is central to Native American cultures, from northern Maine to southern California. Care for the environment is a governing creed among North American spiritual traditions, which view human existence in terms of sustainability and balance with the natural world.
The Woodland Indians once called the vast forests of the Eastern United States home. They believed they were a part of nature. The land and all the living creatures were a gift from the great spirit, Mannito. They took only what they needed. They believed the land was a treasure in trust, given to them to use wisely and well so that it could be passed on to future generations. Only now in the 21st century are we starting to embrace this concept. During the 18th century the Native Americans were thought to be primitive savages. But in some ways they were ahead of their time.

The Hindu doctrine of Dharma calls for behavior that benefits all the world, including nature.
The humble sage views the diverse beings around him, not as mere mechanistic bodies, but as all possessing a pure spirit soul, he does not even see the difference between different species of life! To the sage, the soul of the cow, and the dog, and the elephant is just a worthy of dignity, respect, and spiritual equality as is the soul contained in the human being.
Practitioners of the Jaina tradition share with Hindus a respect for all life. Jaina monks and nuns famously sweep the pathways before them. The whisk removes any creatures along the way so as not to tread on any bugs and the mask prevents accidental inhalation.

The predecessor of the zoological garden is the menagerie, which has a long history from the ancient world to modern times. The oldest known zoological collection was revealed during excavations at Hierakonpolis, Egypt, of a ca. 3500 B.C. menagerie. The exotic animals included hippos, hartebeest, elephants, baboons and wildcats.

The Babylonians and Assyrians both loved gardens and frequently planted them in public and private spaces, including in their cities, palaces, and temples. It was common for Mesopotamian kings to bring back flora and fauna from their expeditions and create gardens, often with zoos, inside the city walls. The garden have been a well-documented one that the Assyrian king Sennacherib (704-681 BC) built in his capital city of Nineveh on the River Tigris near the modern city of Mosul.

The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one whose location has not been definitely established. They to have been built in the ancient city of Babylon, near present-day Hillah, Babil province, in Iraq. According to one legend, the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II, who ruled between 605 and 562 BC, built the Hanging Gardens for his Persian wife, Queen Amytis, because she missed the green hills and valleys of her homeland.

The world's first recorded (247 BCE) wildlife and nature reserve is recorded in Sri Lanka  Mihintale, established by King Devanampiyatissa.  Mihintale is a mountain peak near Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka.
This is the very same area where 247 B.C. a Singhalese king was converted to Buddhism by the Indian monk Mahinda. The Mahavamsa - the Great Chronicle of the Singhalese, too states that many kings in the past campaigned for the protection of animals in pursuit of the ideal and Buddhist philosophy of preserving life. The Mahavamsa is a historical poem written in the Pali language, of the Kings of Sri Lanka. The first version of it covered the period from the coming of King Vijaya of the Rarh region of ancient Bengal in 543 BCE.

In Bernd Brunners book `The Ocean at Home,` find the following paragraph: These fish were kept in opaque tanks, often made of marble, in front of the house. The first fish to enter the interior of a house in imperial Rome was the sea barbel, a much cherished and expensive breed. Allegedly, they were kept in small tanks underneath the cushions of the guest beds. Around 50 AD, panes of glass were brought to Rome, Herculanaeum, and Pompeii, to replace one wall of the marble tanks; now it was possible to actually see the hustle and bustle of the fish without having to guess their schematic movements from above. If true, this would mark the Romans as the inventor of the flat-sided aquarium, not the British centuries later.

In the 7th century, Muhammad established a green belt around Medina. He did this by prohibiting any further removal of trees in a 12-mile long strip around the city. (Iqbal, Munawar (2005). Islamic Perspectives on Sustainable Development.)
The first and the original environmental and conservation movement on earth. This movement was started 1400 years ago by Gods (Allah) last messenger, Muhammad. 1400 years ago when no one would have thought the importance of environmental protection, Prophet Muhammad gave the world the guiding principles for keeping the healthy environment and conserving the world resources.  Muslims, around the world, have an obligation to protect the environment and conserve resources by joining the original Environmental Protection Agency on earth founded by Prophet Muhammad.
Dating to pre-Islamic times, the hima is considered among the worlds oldest conservation systems. There were at one time thousands of himas across the Arabian Peninsula, owned by tribal chiefs who used them for hunting, for the exclusive grazing of their personal flocks, or to oppress locals by cutting them off from resources. According to one medieval Arab jurist, the boundaries of a hima were determined by how far away the tribal leaders dog could be heard barking from a centrally located high point.
Pre-Islamic Arabic refers to the Arabic civilization that existed in the Arabian Peninsula before the rise of Islam in the 630s CE.
With the coming of Islam, the socially-conscious Muhammad transformed the hima from a private enclave into a public asset, in which all community members had a share and a stake, in accordance with their duty as stewards (khalifa) of Allahs natural world.

The Old Testament outlines a proposal for a green belt around the Levite towns in the Land of Israel, Moses Maimonides expounded that the Greenbelt plan from the Old Testament referred to all towns in ancient Israel.
Mishneh Torah (is a code of Jewish religious law), Sefer Zeraim,  Shemita - Chapter 13.
Halacha 4
In the cities of the Levites, the city itself should not be transformed into an outlying residential area and the outlying residential area should not made part of the city. This outlying residential area should not be converted to fields, nor should the fields be converted into such a residential area, as [Leviticus 25:34] states: "The fields of the residential area of their cities should not be sold."
Torah was compiled between 1170 and 1180.

The first mention of the conservation status.  North Central Tunisia National Park Ichkeul belong to the 13th century, when the then ruling dynasty of the Arab Caliphate Hafsidov banned in the outskirts of the lake hunting.  The Jebel Ichkeul Mountain at the Ichkeul lakes southern edge was once a hunting park where royalty attempted to capture wild boar and other smaller species.
The Ichkeul lake and wetland are a major stopover point for hundreds of thousands of migrating birds, such as ducks, geese, storks and pink flamingoes, who come to feed and nest there. Ichkeul is the last remaining lake in a chain that once extended across North Africa.

Tenochtitlan was an Aztec city-state located in the Valley of Mexico. Founded in 1325, it became the capital of the expanding Mexica Empire in the 15th century, until captured by the Spanish in 1521. At its peak, it was the largest city in the Pre-Columbian Americas. Today the ruins of Tenochtitlan are located in the central part of Mexico City. In the city was the palace of Moctezuma II. The Palace had two houses of zoos, one for birds of prey and another for other birds, reptiles and mammals. About 300 people were dedicated to the care of the animals. There was also a botanical garden and an aquarium. The aquarium had ten ponds of salt water and ten ponds of fresh water, containing fish and aquatic birds. Places like this also existed in Texcoco, Chapultepec, Huaxtepec and Texcotzingo. Erected by the hill of Texcotzingo, the royal residence had gardens, one of the first extant botanical gardens in the world. Texcoco Palace gardens were a vast botanical collection that included plants from not only the growing Aztec Empire but also the most remote corners of Mesoamerica. Gardens in Tenochtitlan established by king Nezahualcoyotl.

In the Middle Ages (5th-15th century) in Europe, rich and powerful people protected hunting grounds for a thousand years. Allocated for this special land, where the purpose of reproduction game temporarily prohibit any hunting. However, the modern protected areas movement had 19th century origins in North America, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Other countries were quick to follow suit.

Bogdkhan Uul, just south of Ulanbator, Mongolia, is the oldest national park in the World and Asia. Thats right it predates Yellowstone by over 100 years. Established by the Mongolian government in 1778, it was originally chartered by Ming Dynasty officials in the 1500s as an area to be kept off limits to extractive uses, protected for its beauty and sacred nature.

The world's first botanical garden was created  in Padua by the Venetian Republic 1545.

Until the early 19th century, the function of the zoo was often to symbolize royal power, like King Louis XIV's menagerie at Versailles. The kings build a menagerie at Versailles in late 1662.

Tiergarten Schönbrunn or Vienna Zoo is a zoo located on the grounds of the famous Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna, Austria. Founded as an imperial menagerie in 1752, it is the oldest modern zoo in the world.

The world's first modern nature reserve was established in 1821 by the naturalist and explorer Charles Waterton around his estate in Walton Hall, West Yorkshire,England.

The Madras Board of Revenue started local conservation efforts in 1842, headed by Alexander Gibson, a professional botanist who systematically adopted a Bombay, British India forest conservation program based on scientific principles. This was the first case of state conservation management of forests in the world. Governor-General Lord Dalhousie introduced the first permanent and large-scale forest conservation program in the world in 1855, a model that soon spread to other colonies, as well the United States,where Yellowstone National Park was opened in 1872 as the worlds first national park.

In 1853, the first large public aquarium opened in the London Zoo and came to be known as the Fish House.

The first national park in the world - Yellowstone National Park  is a national park located primarily in the U.S. state of Wyoming, although it also extends into Montana and Idaho. It was established by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1872.

Australia's first national park - and the second in the world - is Royal National Park in New South Wales, established in 1879.

The Hluhluwe-Imfolozi Park in northern KwaZulu-Natal is less than three hours by car from Durban airport (and even less from the city.) It is the first game reserve in South Africa and was first proclaimed a protected area in 1895, but it really came to international attention in the 1960s when it was the focus of the successful campaign to save both the white and black rhino from extinction.

In 1909, Sweden became the first country in Europe to establish such national parks - Abisko, Ängsö, Garphyttan, Gotska Sandön, Hamra, Pieljekaise, Sarek, Stora Sjöfallet and Sonfjället National Park.

Virunga National Park in the Democratic Republic of the Congo was established in 1925 as Africa's first national park.

Initially, protected areas were recognised on a national scale, differing from country to country until 1933, when an effort to reach an international consensus on the standards and terminology of protected areas took place at the International Conference for the Protection of Fauna and Flora in London. As one of the first general conservation agreement in Africa, and the first to specifically protect a plant species, it has been called the Magna Carta of wildlife conservation.

Marineland of Florida, one of the first theme parks in Florida, USA, started in 1938, claims to be "the world's first oceanarium, the first commercial dolphinarium".

An Antarctic Specially Protected Area (ASPA) is an area on the continent of Antarctica, or on nearby islands, which is protected by scientists and several different international bodies. The protected areas were established in 1961 under the Antarctic Treaty System, which governs all the land and water south of 60 latitude and protects against human development. A permit is required for entry into any ASPA site. The ASPA sites are protected by the governments of Australia, New Zealand, United States, United Kingdom, Chile, France, Argentina, Poland, Russia, Norway, Japan, India, and Italy. There are 71 sites.

At the 1962 First World Conference on National Parks in Seattle the effect the Industrial Revolution had had on the world's natural environment was acknowledged, and the need to preserve it for future generations was established.Since then, it has been an international commitment on behalf of both governments and non-government organisations to maintain the networks that hold regular revisions for the succinct categorisations that have been developed to regulate and record protected areas.

The worlds first marine protected area (MPA) was probably the Fort Jefferson National Monument in Florida, USA, which covered 18850 ha of sea and 35 ha of coastal land. Although this site was designated in 1935, the main impetus for MPAs came much later. The World Congress on National Parks in 1962 was one of the first international conservation meetings to give the subject special attention. A follow up meeting in 1982 called for the incorporation of marine, coastal and freshwater sites into the worldwide network of protected areas.

In 1972,the Stockholm Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment endorsed the protection of representative examples of all major ecosystem types as a fundamental requirement of national conservation programmes. This has become a core principle of conservation biology and has remained so in recent resolutions - including the World Charter for Nature in Nairobi in 1982

the Rio Declaration at the Earth Summit in 1992,

and the Johannesburg Declaration 2002.

The IUCN World Parks Congress is a landmark global forum on protected areas held every ten years. As the worlds most influential gathering of people involved in protected area management, it sets the global agenda for the following decade. The next IUCN World Parks Congress will take place 12 - 19 November 2014 in Sydney, Australia.

Recently, the importance of protected areas has been brought to the fore at the threat of human-induced global warming and the understanding of the necessity to consume natural resources in a sustainable manner.


IUCN protected area categories  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protected_Area_Management_Categories

IUCN Category I Strict nature reserve  area which is protected from but light human use in order to preserve the geological and geomorphical features of the region and its biodiversity.A strict nature reserve (category Ia) or wilderness area (category Ib), is the highest category of protected area recognised by the World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nature_reserve, http://www.wild.org/,http://www.wilderness.net/

IUCN Category II National park  this bears similar characteristics to that of Wilderness Areas with regards to size and the main objective of protecting functioning ecosystems. However, national parks tend to be more lenient with human visitation and its supporting infrastructure. A national park is an area dedicated by statute for all times (permanent status ) to conserve the scenery, natural or historic object of national importance and wild life. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_national_parks . A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of wild nature for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. Furthermore, an international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas.

IUCN Category III Natural monument or feature  represents comparatively smaller areas that are specifically allocated to protect a natural monument and its surrounding habitats.A natural monument is a natural or natural/cultural feature of outstanding or unique value because of its inherent rarity, representative of aesthetic qualities or cultural significance.

IUCN Category IV Habitat management area and species management area  like Category III Natural monument/feature, this focuses on more specific areas of conservation (though size is not necessarily a distinguishing feature) but in relation to an identifiable species or habitat that requires continuous protection.

IUCN Category V Protected landscape and protected seascape  area covers entire bodies of land or ocean with a more explicit management plan in the interest of nature conservation but is more likely to include a range of for-profit activities.

IUCN category VI Protected Area with sustainable use of natural resources that is focused on the sustainable management of natural resources in correspondence the livelihoods of those who are dependent on both.

Northeast Greenland National Park is the worlds largest protected area, national park and most northerly national park. Established in 1974 and expanded to its present size in 1988, it protects 972,001 km2 of the interior and northeastern coast of Greenland and is bigger than all but thirty countries in the world.

The Chagos Marine Protected Area is the largest marine reserve in the world, covering a total surface area of 640,000 km2.


New Zealand and the United States have submitted a revised proposal to establish a Marine Protected Area (MPA) in the Ross Sea region that will cover roughly 1.340.000 km2. If agreed by The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), this would be the largest MPA in the world. The Ross Sea proposal, supported by the US and New Zealand, would have banned commercial fishing in an area of 1.6m sq km. The other reserve, supported by France, Australia and the EU aimed to protect 1.900.000 km2 on the Pacific side of Antarctica. But Russia and the Ukraine questioned the legal basis of the plan that would have more than doubled the size of the world's marine reserves at a stroke. (oc

The US and New Zealand were again backing a proposal to create a marine protected zone in the Ross Sea with a total area of 2.300.000 km2, making it the biggest in the world. (

Kavango-Zambezi (KAZA - Kavango/Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area), the world's largest wildlife reserve. 444.000 km2.

The World largest biosphere reserve - The Bosawás Biosphere Reserve in the northern part of Nicaragua is a hilly tropical forest designated in 1997 as a UNESCO biosphere reserve. At approximately 20,000 km² in size.

Worldwide, there are now about 1800 botanical gardens and arboreta in about 150 countries (mostly in temperate regions) of which about 550 are in Europe (150 of which are in Russia), 200 in North America, and an increasing number in East Asia. These gardens attract about 150 million visitors a year, so it is hardly surprising that many people gained their first exciting introduction to the wonders of the plant world in a botanical garden.

National Botanic Gardens of South Africa. Also known as Kirstenbosch Botanic Gardens, this is one of the worlds largest botanical gardens, occupying a 1,305-acre site in Kirstenbosch, near Cape Town, Western Cape province, South Africa.

The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew is the world's largest collection of living plants. The organisation employs more than 650 scientists and other staff. The living collections include more than 30,000 different kinds of plants, while the herbarium, which is one of the largest in the world, has over seven million preserved plant specimens. The library contains more than 750,000 volumes, and the illustrations collection contains more than 175,000 prints and drawings of plants.

Botanic Gardens Conservation International is a plant conservation charity. It is a membership organisation, working with 800 botanic gardens in 118 countries, whose combined work forms the world's largest plant conservation network. - http://www.bgci.org/

Encompassing 287 hectares (710 acres), the Toronto Zoo is the world's largest zoo.

The Berlin Zoological Garden is home to 1,500 species and 20,500 total animals. At this number, the Berlin Zoological Garden holds the most comprehensive collection of species in the world. Over 3 million visitors come to the zoo annually.


The Georgia Aquarium in Atlanta is the largest aquarium in the world housing more than 100,000 sea creatures. The Georgia Aquarium is the only institution outside of Asia to house whale sharks. The sharks are kept in a gigantic 24.000.000 liter tank in the Ocean Voyager exhibit. There has been controversy surrounding the decision of the Georgia Aquarium to house whale sharks. Concerns about keeping the whale sharks in captivity were heightened by the deaths of two of the whale sharks originally obtained.

A project to map all the public aquariums in the world - http://www.fishesninverts.com/locator/

The Arctic is a unique region in the world, with very little human activity and vast expanses of tundra and taiga that presents ecological values. This graphics presents the areas that currently are protected for conservation, as recognized by the IUCN in the World Protected Areas Database at UNEP-WCMC, 2005.

From 40m in the 15th century to 40km on the Mars.


The first self propelled vehicle in history invented by the Italian Genius Leonardo Da Vinci in or around 1478. Leonardo da Vinci designed a clockwork driven tricycle with tiller steering and a differential mechanism between the rear wheels.♥ Interesting Leonardo car resembles NASAs "Spirit" a space vehicle used on Mars!

This model, based on sketches drawn by L­eonardo, is considered by some to be the worlds first self-propelled wagon.
Leonardos car,1.68m long and 1.49m wide, runs on clockwork. The springs are wound up by rotating the wheels in the opposite direction to the one in which it is meant to go.
Based on the spring diameters and instructions on Leonardo design, it is estimated that the machine could move for up to 40m before needing to be recoiled!

Leonardo da Vinci, the quintessential Renaissance man, design an early version of the car. A replica of the self-propelled cart is kept at the museum Clos Lucé, France.
Like many of Leonardos sketches, however, the car remained on paper throughout his lifetime -- we can only speculate that the machine was either considered too dangerous to operate or the inventor didn't have adequate materials to build it.Professor Paolo Galluzzi, director of the Institute and Museum of the History of Science in Florence believes that "most probably" an early prototype of the vehicle was built, but the finished work remained locked in the pages of da Vincis notebooks, in his sketch on folio 812r of the Atlantic Codex.
Leonardos machine is powered by the two symmetric springs. While one spring would be enough to move the device, two symmetric springs probably looked like a more "logically perfect" solution. Leonardo has been well aware the powering force drops significantly as the spring unwinds. In order to deliver smooth and stable motion, the machine features balance wheel, as used in clocks. The control mechanism is quite complex and allows to follow the pre-programmed path automatically. The machine also features a mechanism similar to differential that also allows to set the turning angle.This automobile was most likely designed for one of Leonardos wealthy patrons, he was regularly employed to create complex showpieces for his patrons large and exquisite parties, such things would be a way for them to show their wealth to their guests.

Although not strictly a car in our modern sense as it did not have seats for a passenger (although this is a simple modification) it is by all means a very well designed machine. In fact, it is so well designed it is unlikely that it could have been built to Leonardos specifications for at least a couple of centuries as very detailed machine tooling would be required to build the complex gear systems inside the car.
1470 year!
Di Giorgio Martini (Italian painter of the Sienese School) called his vehicle an automobile, which is probably the earliest use of the term to describe something like the modern car.
1430 year! Italian polymath Mariano (Taccola) Waggon.

1410 year! Venetian physician and engineer Giovanni da Fontana produced the design below for a self-driving carriage operated by hand.
1335 year! Italian physician and inventor Guido da Vigevanos Wind car.
1332-1323 BCE, King Tutankhamun, the pharaoh who ruled Egypt, rode in full speed over the desert dunes on a Formula 1- like chariot. Even at speeds of about 25 miles per hour.
Circa 3635 BCE-3370 BCE  The earliest image of a wheeled vehicle is on the The Funnel Beaker culture ceramic vase in the Neolithic settlement, near Krakow,Poland.
Cucuteni-Trypillian cultures cow on wheels from Ukraina, 3950-3650 BCE.
5500 BCE ! The Earliest Evidence Of The Wheel. A stone car (toy car) with two axles and 4wheels was found in the Kiziltepe district of the southeastern province of Mardin,Turkey.
Other say: first there were sleds, then rollers and finally wheels. Logs and other rollers were widely used in the ancient world to move heavy objects.
The true beginnings of the wheel date back possibly as far as the Paleolithic era (15000 to 750000years ago). This wheel was nothing more than a log, laid alongside others, which was placed beneath a load to be moved. The main problem with this method of transportation was that many rollers were required, and care was required to insure that the rollers stayed true to their course.
in 1668, Le Pere Ferdinand Verbiest, a Belgian Jesuit missionary in China built the first self-propelled a reduced- scale, 65cm long model of a chariot that was steam powered vehicle.

Verbiest tested his invention in the Imperial Palace in Beijing. This greatly amused the Emperor but the project went no further.

The steam car designed by Verbiest in 1672. Steam technology was still in its infancy at the time, but Verbiest was able to build a rudimentary, ball-shaped boiler, which then forced steam towards a turbine that could turn the back wheels. When the steam from the boiler sprayed outside through a small hose, the lamina would be impacted, the air steam would make the whole wheel run quickly, then the dolly would be moved forward. Under certain speed, the dolly could move continuously for more than one hour...

In the 1st century AD, Greek mathematician and engineer Hero of Alexandria described the device aeolipile, also known as a Hero engine. Aeolipile is a rocket style jet engine which spins when heated.
Hero described is considered to be the first recorded steam engine or reaction steam turbine.

The first car to carry humans.

In 1769, the very first self-propelled road vehicle was a military tractor invented by French engineer and mechanic, Nicolas Joseph Cugnot. Cugnot used a steam engine to power his vehicle, built under his instructions at the Paris Arsenal by mechanic Brezin. Steam engines powered cars by burning fuel that heated water in a boiler, creating steam that expanded and pushed pistons that turned the crankshaft, which then turned the wheels.

In 1771, Cugnot drove one of his road vehicles into a stone wall, making Cugnot the first person to get into a motor vehicle accident. It was used by the French Army to haul artillery. The vehicle had to stop every ten to fifteen minutes to build up steam power. Vehicle have to carry 4-5 tons and cover 2 lieues(7.8 km) in one hour. In 1769, he drove his steam tractor in the presence of the Duke of Choiseul in Paris at an impressive 2.5miles per hour which many believe to be the first land speed record. After running a small number of trials variously described as being between Paris and Vincennes(~7km) and at Meudon, the project was abandoned.

In 1885, German mechanical engineer, Karl Benz designed and built the worlds first practical automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine - "Benz Patent Motorwagen"
The Benz Patent-Motorwagen Nr. 3 of 1888, used by Bertha Benz ( the wife and business partner of automobile inventor Karl Benz) for the first long distance journey by automobile -194km!
That trip occurred in early August 1888 from Mannheim via Bruchsal to Pforzheim (Schwarzwald) and back.
The ride was not without incident, of course. The automobile required refueling several times. It ran on Ligroin, or petroleum ether, which was only available in apothecary shops.
The first filling station in history.
The first long-distance automobile road trip to demonstrate its feasibility as a means to travel long distances. Upon their return, and thanks to his wifes long distance 'test drive', Karl was able to make many improvements to the vehicle, including the addition of a second gear for climbing hills.
First intercontinental automobile trip.
  - Dr. Horatio Nelson Jackson was the first man to drive a car across America in 1903.
  - First car (1903 Winton touring car, the Vermont) across North America.
  - Jackson and driving partner Sewall K. Crocker became the first people to drive an automobile across the United States.
Horatios drive set out from San Francisco, headed for New York City.  Covered at least 5600miles. Two had been attempted and both failed: One the previous year by Alexander Winton, and one in 1899 by a couple who were ultimately passed on the road by a one-armed bicyclist who had started out 10days behind them.
At only 20 horsepower, the touring car did not go very fast; of course, it had no roof or windshield so the drivers had to wear goggles. In the day and age before paved roads, before gas stations, and before road maps, Dr.Jackson had to rely on his own resources.
They met cowboys with lariats which came in handy to tow their roadster out of sandhills.
As Horatio crossed the country, he wrote letter after letter to his wife Bertha with accounts of his adventure:  the flat tires, the burnt out side lanterns, the fuel leak, running out of oil, the tainted water which made Horatio sick, the lost coat (with money inside), the broken drive chain and wheel bearings, and the list goes on.  Even so, Horatio retained an indomitable spirit, bent on finishing the trip that he had started. In 1903, there were an estimated 14million horses in the United States, but only 8000 cars. Fewer than 150miles of paved roads existed. 
The touring car had sucked up 800gallons of gasoline.
After 63days, 12hours and 30min. on July26, the roadster reached New York City. Finally crossed the Harlem River into Manhattan. Jackson spent $8000 of own funds on the trip.

♦ Robert L.Jefferson  becoming the first ever driver to drive across Europe  in his 8-hp single-cylinder Rover... Several drivers had tried it, but had been defeated by the goat-tracks in the mountains of Romania and Bulgaria. But in 1905, carrying only spare tyres and minimal luggage, he set out from The Autocar magazines office in Coventry, managed to get through the Balkans, and so became the first driver to reach Constantinople (Istanbul). He returned home to be hailed a hero.

Robert Jefferson and Robert Weallas drove a Rover8 from Coventry to Istanbul.

♦ The first car to drive through the Asia.
The Peking to Paris motor race was an automobile race, originally held in 1907, between Peking, then Qing China and Paris, a distance of 14994km.

It was the worlds first extra-rally-marathon! There were forty entrants in the race, but only five teams ended up going ahead with shipping the cars to Peking.  

The race started from the French embassy in Peking on 10June 1907. The winner arrived in Paris on 10August 1907.

The Itala mod. 35/45 HP, 7 litre engine,  finished 1st, driven by Prince Scipione Borghese and Ettore Guizzardi.


The first car to drive around the world.

The first and only around-the-world automobile race! Six cars representing four nations. The Protos representing Germany, the Züst representing Italy, three cars (De Dion-Bouton, Motobloc, and Sizaire-Naudin) representing France, and Thomas Flyer competing for the United States.

The challenge: to travel by car around the world from New York to Paris. The greatest auto race on earth was begun on February 12,1908.

What many called "The Great Race" was sponsored by the NEW YORK TIMESand the LA MATIN (a Paris newspaper). 

The torturous New York to Paris Race route: NYC, Albany, Chicago, SanFrancisco, Seattle, Valdez Alaska, Japan, Vladivostok, Omsk, Moscow, St.Petersburg, Berlin and finally Paris. 

The Race was ultimately won by the American Thomas Flyer Team driven by George Schuster Sr. of Buffalo,NY, covered three continents and over 22000miles in 169days. 

The feat has never been equaled. They still hold the world record over 100years later!

The first circumnavigate the world by amphibious vehicle - Guinness World Records!
Beginning in Montreal, Australian adventurer Ben Carlin circumnavigated the world in a modified Ford GPA Jeep between 1947 and 1958, becoming the first person to circumnavigate the world by amphibious vehicle.

He completed the last leg of the Atlantic crossing (the English Channel) on 24 August1951. He arrived back in Montreal, Canada on 8 May1958, having completed a circumnavigation of 62765km over land and 15450km by sea and river over ten years, passing through 38countries and over two oceans, with the entire trip costing him around $35000.
He was accompanied on the transatlantic stage by his ex-wife Elinore (USA) and on the long trans-Pacific stage (Tokyo to Anchorage, Alaska) by Boye Lafayette De Mente (USA).
The first vehicle-based expedition to traverse both American continents north to south through the Darién Gap.
First car through South America - the British Trans-Americas Expedition in 1972 led by John Blashford-Snell
The expedition started on the December 3rd 1971 from Anchorage in Alaska and ended at the southern most tip of Terra del Fuego in Southern America,Ushuaia Cape Horn reached by the June 10th 1972. The two Range Rovers was supplied by Rover Ltd Co. The British Trans-Americas expedition was led by Major John Blashford-Snell, who had Blue Nile andRed Sea expedition experiences behind him.
The route was along the 18000miles long Pan-American Highway, with 3months of crossing through the road less part in the Darien Gap isthmus jungle. The Darien Gap or El Tapon - "The Stopper" is a severe and swamping rain forest jungle of 250miles (400km). Almost impossible to cross with any vehicle. In this jungle there are no roads, no bridges, no continuous tracks other than those the Indian knows. The speed of the expedition was low, some days only a mile was covered, if they were lucky. The engineers were armed with machetes and power saws, but everywhere the were severe obstacles like huge trees and ruts. ..Highway through South America begins again, after 96 unforgettable days in the 250mile jungle of Darien Gap..
The Expedition crossed the Atrato Swamp in Colombia with the cars on special inflatable rafts that were carried in the backs of the vehicles.
On the fast desert roads in Chile they were able to hold a speed of 90-100 mph and covering 800miles in a day. On four days in Chile the Range Rovers covered 2375miles! That compared to the speed in the Darien Gap jungle of average 2.5miles a day!

The first complete motorised crossing of the whole length of Africa -
The first known attempt to drive a vehicle from Cape Town to Cairo,sponsored by the Telegraph, with 25-horsepower khaki Scottish Argyll Motor Company vehicle, was by a Captain Kelsey in 1913-14 but this came to an untimely end when he was killed by a leopard in Rhodesia. ..this expedition was "as exotic as going to the moon today"..
..for the first two months, covering as many as 94miles a day ....just 10months later, the journey ended in disaster, only a third of the way along the route, after Macaskill contracted a near-fatal fever and Kelsey was mauled to death by a leopard..  http://www.telegraph.co.uk/history/10174069/The-African-expedition-doomed-for-disaster.html
- 28.October 1924 - 26.June 1925 The Black Cruise, expedition, also called "Expedition Citroen Centre for Africa", Colomb - Bechar (Algeria) connects Antananarivo (Madagaskar), through the Hoggar mountain and Chad.
Citroën imagine an ambitious project that crossed the continent from one side with half-tracks. The transport vehicles used were modified cars based on the Citroen Type B2 model. Having married tank technology with a truck to produce a tank-like tracked vehicle that could cope easily with sand or mud.
The expedition allows 8-tracks browse 28000km across Africa. The mission, comprising 17 members, led by Georges-Marie Haardt, Louis Audouin-Dubreuil as his deputy.
- 15.November 1924 - 3. July 1925
First cross-country special car - crossing of Africa by the French, his wife, a mechanic Bonnaure (and later a young Africans). The 6wheel, 13.9-h.p. Renault Models travels North to South right across Africa - Renault 10CV Type MH 6x6 Sahara. With their two rear drive axles, these cars combine good climbing ability and ease of use. In fact, 12wheels as they are matched in order to better "focus" on the sand. In the 1920s, Africa is still not fully understood, there are still a lot of white spots on the African map. An extremely daring enterprise, Louis Renault (one of the founders of Renault) is skeptical. It provides the vehicle and the fuel. The remaining costs shall be borne by the death-defying adventurer. A north - south crossing, moreover, alone, is a suicide mission these days.
French Army Captain, Mr. and Mrs. Delingette, accompanied by Mr. Bonnaure mechanic drove an extraordinary adventure: 23000miles during which they have crossed 35 rivers by canoe and 129 bridges constructed or adapted. They started as one of the four cars Renault in Colomb Béchar, crossed the Sahara and reached Save in West Africa in nearly seven days. In Niamey, they separated and went alone to Cape Town.
This time its a race against competition from Citroen. This expedition began on 28 October to now legendary Croisière Noire. But this time Renault has the edge, after ten days they reached the first target on the Niger, Citroen needs for the next 23days. Renault joined in and also produced a cross-country special, and in 1925 drove from Colomb-Bechar and through the Tanezdrouft to Niamey, then across the centre of Africa to Lake Chad and Stanleyville to Nairobi, then south Livingstone (Iringa - Livingstone was the worst stretch of the whole trip) and on to Pretoria, JoBurg, and Cape Town. Crosed the Ruwenzori Range at an altitude 9000feet
- 23.September 1924 - 24.January 1926
First normal car - crossing of Africa! The first successful journey was the party of six people, led by Major Chaplin Court Treatt which drove two Crossley BGT1 light trucks leaving Cape Town on 1924 and arriving in Cairo on 1926, after covering 12732miles.
The Treats could claim to have driven the length of Africa in something resembling a normal car. They were also the first to drive the whole of Africa in two-wheel drive.
The British Court Treatt expedition was the first successful trip by "road" from Cape Town to Cairo. As traffical roads generally did not exist at that time, the journey was necessarily slow. Part of the purpose of the trip was to map out a route.

The meeting with the Citroen expedition!
First car across Australia - This 1923 Citroen 5CV two-seater boat-tail tourer was the first car driven around Australia. Between August and December 1925, Nevill Westwoods missionary journey of more than 17220km in his baby Citroen
In all he had covered ten thousand seven hundred miles in 148days of unhurried travel. The Citroen had averaged a creditable 43.7miles per gallon in very adverse circumstances.
First vechicle crossing Antarctica.
- Shackletons Dream: Fuchs, Hillary and the Crossing of Antarctica
After spending the winter of 1957 at Shackleton Base, Fuchs set out on the transcontinental journey in November 1957, with a twelve-man team travelling in six vehicles; three Sno-Cats, two Weasels and one specially adapted Muskeg tractor. In parallel Hillary's team had set up Scott Base, which was to be Fuchs final destination, on the opposite side of the continent at McMurdo Sound on the Ross Sea. Using three converted Massey Ferguson TE20 tractors and one Weasel, Hillary and his three men.
Sir Edmund Hillary, the conqueror of Everest, led the New Zealand component of the British Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition in 1955-58, under the overall command of the British explorer Dr Vivian Fuchs. The Commonwealth-sponsored expedition successfully completed the first overland crossing of Antarctica, via the SouthPole, on 2 March1958.
Using motor-sledges and converted farm tractors in place of Shackletons man-hauled sledges, they faced a colossal challenge: a perilous 2000mile journey across the most demanding landscape on the face of the planet, where temperatures can plunge to a staggering -129°F and dense clouds of drift snow blind and disorientate.
- The first crossing of Antarctica in wheeled vehicles.
The Moon Regan Transantarctic Expedition 10-man team have completed the first there-and-back vehicle crossing of the Antarctic continent, led by Andrew Regan and Andrew Moon.
When the Moon Regan Transantarctic Expedition used the highly specialized Bio-Inspired Ice Vehicle for an epic Antarctic crossing, Toyota also sent a fleet of four Hilux pickup trucks to the South Pole.

They travelled from Patriot Hills on the west coast to the South Pole, heading north from there through the Trans-Antarctic Mountains, down the Leverett Glacier and off the coastline onto the Ross Ice Shelf.
The 10-man team left Union Glacier on 25.November 2010 and arrived, via the Geographic South Pole, on the Ross Ice Shelf on 9.December. They then retraced their tracks and completed the return journey on 17.December. In all they covered nearly 4000km and travelled for 20days, 12hours and 30min. http://www.transantarcticexpedition.com/
♦  Russian amphibious cars crossed the Arctic
Vasily Elagin and his team did it in 61days; on 30.April 2013 they completed a sea ice crossing from Russian to Canada via the Geographic North Pole in their Yemelya-3 and Yemelya-4 amphibious vehicles (with Toyota Diesel engine) designed by Vasily Elagin for transportation over ice floes and thin ice of the Arctic Ocean. 

Odometer reads 2632 km. 2430 km of ice. Used 2200liters of fuel.

World record for altitude attained in a truck.
Land Rover Defender was driven to the 18510-foot summit of Russias Mount Elbrus.
In 1997,Russian adventurer Alexander Abramov led an expedition that drove a vehicle to the top of Mount Elbrus 5642m, making it the highest mountain climbed by a vehicle. The 10-man team drove a Land Rover to the Barrels, a group of huts on a rocky road.They struggled 43days using tire chains and winches to haul the Land Rover to the summit.
On September 13 they reached the top and drove around the summit plateau. Then they left to celebrate their success, returning a couple weeks later to get the Land Rover down.
Instead of waiting for tire chains and cables, one of the drivers attempted to drive down but lost control and had to bail out. The vehicle plummeted down and came to rest on rocks where it still sits.
The underground vehicle used in the 1967 Japanese Science fiction series Ultraseven - one of Japan's greatest fantasy TV series.
The Seikan Tunnel in Japan is the deepest operational rail tunnel in the world. The track level is about 140m below the seabed and 240m below sea level.
The deepest mines in the world is the TauTona gold mine in South Africa, a mere 3600 m deep.
The deepest borehole, Kola Superdeep Borehole, reached 12262 m in 1990 and still is the deepest artificial point on Earth.
On July 2008 the tunnel boring machine Herrenknecht has achieved world records in hard rock with a best daily advance rate of 105.6m and a best weekly advance rate of 435m. After a best monthly performance of 1688m. Herrenknecht - double shield tunnel boring machine (TBM) S-373, broke through  the Cabrera Tunnel, which will serve as a connection between Valencia and Madrid in Spain. The tunnel boring machine has a diameter of 9.69m
In order to be able to dig down to the center of the Earth we needed to dig our way through 6378km of rock, mantle, and iron.
Today's most advanced tunnel boring machines mechanical malls candy four meter every hour. (6378km = 6378000m : 4m = 1594500hour = 182years!)
Channel tunnel linking England and France needed 5years to construct and it's only 50km long.
We need to extract four giant truckloads with stones of per hour, one hundred per day, thirty six million truckloads in all and thats if we can all straight down!
We have to design a new type of vehicle to transport us through the tunnel. Maybe a capsule able to withstand the extremes found deep inside the earth.

This trip will go much hostile environment than a trip into space or down into the ocean.When we go to extreme depth, the rocks change in character due to the temperature affects, but its not only temperature that will be a problem. Capsule will be exposed to temperatures very long, therefore it will be important the cooling system. Some of the best materials that we have currently for dealing with temperatures like that would be the ceramic tiles in the Shuttle or some kind of carbon-carbon, anytime carbon-based material.Carbon-carbon materials retain their properties above 2000°C.
Temperatures on the exterior of the Shuttle can reach 1650°C during this phase of flight.
Diamond melt in absence of oxygen and a temperature of around 3500°C
The biggest issue in a hell-trip is going to be the extreme temperatures and pressures. Under earth a few miles of pressures will be too high for any sort of normal technology.
Diamond is the hardest substances known to date with the Knoop scale hardness nearly 8000-17000kg/mm squared (70-160GPa).
We can manufacture diamonds, but could we fabricate an entire vessel out of diamond?

But already Earth outer core outer boundary lies 2890km beneath Earth's surface with 3400°C and 135GPa pressure!
Nanodiamond or hyperdiamond, nanocrystalline form of diamond, has a hardness value of 310GPa!

At the center of the Earth we may find unnatural nuclear reactor, geomagnetic field and no gravity!

Lotus Excel Submarine - the worlds first fully functioning submarine car.
This Lotus Excel was modified by the Top Gear crew and definitely something that 007 himself would drive. This Bond car features an extendable rear dive planes, electrically-powered rear thrusters, a double skinned passenger compartment, a roof hatch for access and a crafty ballast system that involves filling its tires with concrete.
In honour of the 50th anniversary of the James Bond film franchise and the release of the 23rd Bond film Skyfall, Richard Hammond paid tribute to some of 007 greatest moments on wheels with an hour-long Top Gear special, looking at some of the famous, and not so famous, cars used by the worlds favourite spy.
Worlds first flying car.
With cars and congestion becoming too much for commuters in the 1940s, american pioneering inventor Moulton Taylor developed a way to soar above the rest.
The first-ever Aerocar was built in 1949 and successfully proved that the roadster - complete with folding wings to keep it a street-worthy size - could be done. Car is a 21ft long, two-place aircraft with seating for two, a 30ft wingspan and single Lycoming 0-320 engine mounted over rear wheels.
The idea for the Aerocar occurred to its designer Taylor in 1946. Taylor built his first production Aerocar in 1954 and flew them, as he attempted to develop a market into the early 1960s.
He used fiberglass on the cars outer panels to keep the weight down and developed a front wheel drive because the rear wheels were used for landing. Takeoff speed was 55 mph and the airplane was controlled with the same steering wheel. Cruising Range: 300miles. Aerocars could drive up to 60miles per hour and have a top airspeed of 110miles per hour.

Although six examples were built, the Aerocar never entered production.
DeLorean time machine.

The DeLorean time machine is a fictional automobile-based time travel device featured in the Back to the Future trilogy (1985,`89,`90).

In the feature film series, Dr. Emmett Brown builds a time machine from a DeLorean DMC-12 with the intent of gaining insights into history from 1885 to 2015 (travel across 130years of Hill Valley history).
The DeLorean after its first trip.
The DeLorean Chevette, time machine was Doctor Emmett Browns most successful invention, a plutonium-powered time machine comprised of a DeLorean DMC-12 sports car that had to reach 88 miles per hour in order to time travel.
The Apollo15 Lunar Roving Vehicle on the Moon in 7.august 1971.
The Apollo15 mission was the first to carry a lunar rover, which allowed the astronauts to travel much further from their landing site and sample a much wider variety of lunar materials.
On Apollo15 the rover was driven a total of 27.8km in 3 hours, 2 min of driving time.The longest single traverse was 12.5km and the maximum range from the Lunar Modul was 5.0km.
The Lunar Roving Vehicle had a mass of 210kg and was designed to hold a payload of an additional 490kg on the lunar surface. The frame was 3.1m long with a wheelbase of 2.3m. The maximum height was 1.14m.
Lunokhod 1 was the first of two unmanned lunar rovers landed on the moon by the Soviet Union as part of its Lunokhod program. Lunokhod was the first roving remote-controlled robot to land on another world. Lunokhod 1  launched on November 17,1970. The rover had two speeds, ~1 km/h and ~2 km/h. The rover stood 135 cm high and had a mass of 840kg. It was about 170cm long and 160cm wide and had 8 wheels each with an independent suspension, motor and brake. During its 322 Earth days of operations, Lunokhod 1 traveled 10.5km. Lunokhod 1 held the durability record for space rovers for more than 30years. 
Lunokhod 2 operated for about 4months, covered 42km of terrain,including hilly upland areas and rilles, and currently holds the record for the longest distance of surface travel of any extraterrestrial vehicle.
Mars Exploration Rover.
- Mars 3 lander had a small 4.5kg 'Mars rover' - ПрОП-М (Prop-M) on board, which was planned to move across the surface on skis while connected to the lander with a 15-m umbilical cable. Mars3 was an unmanned space probe of the Soviet Mars program. Launch Date: December 2, 1971. Because of the demise of the lander, the rover was not deployed.

Prop-M rover lost when Mars 3 lander stopped communicating about 14,5 sec after landing.
- Opportunity, Mars Exploration Rover , is a robotic rover active on the planet Mars since 2004.
Opportunity landed in Meridiani Planum inside Eagle crater. Eagle is a 22-m long impact crater located on the Meridiani Planum extraterrestrial plain, situated within the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle (MC-19) portion of the planet Mars. 

Life, as we understand it, requires water, so the history of water on Mars is critical to finding out if the Martian environment was ever conducive to life. Although the Mars Exploration Rovers do not have the ability to detect life directly, they are offering very important information on the habitability of the environment in the planet's history.
Opportunity is a six-wheeled, solar-powered robot standing 1.5m high, 2.3m wide, and 1.6m long and weighing 180kg. Each wheel has its own motor, the vehicle is steered at front and rear and is designed to operate safely at tilts of up to 30 degrees. Maximum speed is 5cm per second although average speed is about a fifth of this (0.89 cm per sec). Opportunity have pieces of the fallen World Trade Centers metal that were "turned into shields to protect cables on the drilling mechanisms"
Release Date: 3/3/2014  Total odometry is 38.74km - Out of this World Record - Driving distanc on Mars!
Status for sol - 3588 (The term sol is used by planetary astronomers to refer to the duration of a solar day on Mars. A mean Martian solar day, or "sol",is 24hours,39min.)
Current: 3695 days since landing.
Interesting Leonardo car resembles NASAs "Spirit" a space vehicle used on Mars!

Les Croisieres Citroën.

♦ The first
one Traversée du Sahara , in December 1922 - January 1923, crossed Sahara from Touggourt in Algeria to Timbuktu in Mali. The transport vehicles used were modified cars based on the Citroen Type B2 model. Having married tank technology with a truck to produce a tank-like tracked vehicle that could cope easily with sand or mud.

♦ The second expedition (from October 1924 to June 1925) - the subject of the movie - was much more ambitious: the whole Africa was traversed from North to South and then to the East coast in Madagascar. It started in Algeria, heading South to Niamey and East to Lake Tchad, then South-East into the Congo basin to Lake Albert. The team split then in four groups for Mombasa, Dar Es Salaam, Capetown and Mozambique, all reuniting in Madagascar.

The Black Cruise, under both the colonial adventure, automobile raid and advertising campaign is born from the desire of a man, André Citroën.
Black Cruise, expedition, also called "Expedition Citroen Centre for Africa",
Colomb- Bechar (Algeria) connects Antananarivo (Madagaskar), through the Hoggar mountain and Chad, in ten months ( October 1924-June 1925 ) .

This is one of the expeditions set up by André Citroën to increase awareness of its brand and to open a regular motor on the African continent . Indeed, although some browsers, like Felix Dubois in 1898 , tried testing vehicles in Africa, the results are inconclusive as the idea has remained in draft.

Citroën imagine an ambitious project that crossed the continent from one side with half-tracks.
This mission is a real science project.
Beyond mere advertisement, it is also an expedition to reach political, cultural and scientific. The expedition allows 8 -tracks browse 28,000 km across Africa. The mission, comprising 17 members, led by Georges-Marie Haardt Louis Audouin-Dubreuil as his deputy.

The participants of the expedition returning to the autumn of 1925 in Paris, where they are received triumphantly in France . Various exhibitions are organized.

The expedition led to the completion of 300 botanical plates, 15 sketch books and samples of more than 300 mammals, 800 birds and 1500 insects, mostly never inventoried ,

and are collected 9.27 km film are impressed and 6000 photographs taken .

Silent film of the expedition, lasting 70 min., was released March 26, 1926 . This film was a great success, as the expedition as a whole.

"Black Cruise" ... ancestor of Paris-Dakar!

Black Cruise vehicles were also baptized - "Beetle Gold "," Elephant in the Tower "," Sun running "," Snail winged "," Silver Crescent ", " Dove " ," Centaur " and " Pegasus ".

♦ The third expedition - The Citroën Kégresse expedition made across Asia in 1931-1932: 30,000 km from Beirut to Beijing on the ancient Silk Road.
Maynard Williams, the National Geographic Magazine writer accompanying the "Yellow Cruise" Expedition reported on the journey from Srinngar, in Kashmir, to the Chinese border in the March 1932 issue of National Geographic Magazine.

♦ Citroën subsequently supplied Admiral Byrd with three half-track vehicles for his Antarctic expedition (25.sept.1933 - 2.febr.1935). They were able to rescue Admiral Byrd from certain death as it was too cold even to use dog sleds!

♦ Its also supplied five vehicles for the Croisiere Blanche expedition organised in the Rocky Mountains of Canada (4.july - 24.october 1934)

The Voyage of Saint Brendan.

Saint Brendan "the Navigator" or "the Voyager" is one of the early Irish monastic saints.

Irish monk in the sixth century have sailed all the way across the Atlantic in a small open boat, thus beating Columbus to the New World by almost a thousand years.

One day an itinerant monk named Barrind visited Clonfert and shared with Brendan and his brothers how he and a hermit named Mernoc had undertaken a voyage to the Promised Land of the Saints. Barrind described sailing to a land in the west, where they walked about for fifteen days without needing to eat or drink. Reaching a river, they met a man who told them many things about this strange Land, which, he said, had been there since the creation of the world. He instructed the two travelers to return home, and escorted them back to their boat, whereupon they set sail and returned to Mernocs monastery.

Enthralled with Berrinds tale, Brendan selected fourteen monks from his own community and confided to them his desire to visit the Promised Land of the Saints. After praying and fasting, Brendan and his companions set out for Inishmore of the Aran Islands to seek the blessing of St. Edna.

St Brendan is chiefly renowned for his legendary journey to the Isle of the Blessed as described in the ninth century Voyage of St Brendan the Navigator. St. Brendan was granted a vision of the `Promised Land` from the 3,200-foot high summit of Mount Brandon where the ruins of a small beehive-shaped chapel still exist.

Latin texts of Navigatio Sancti Brendani Abbatis (The Voyage of St. Brendan the Abbot) dating back to at least 800 AD tell the story of Brendans (c. 489-583) seven-year voyage across the Atlantic Ocean to a new land and his return. http://www.hs-augsburg.de/~harsch/Chronologia/Lspost10/Brendanus/bre_navi.html

St. Brendans first attempt to sail to the Promised Land was apparently unsuccessful, but he was not discouraged.  He and his crew 14 munks plus three unbelievers who join at the last minute, prayed and set off on a second voyage which lasted seven years; a journey which probably took them to Iceland, Greenland, and even to the American mainland.  Though they had no practical idea of where this island was, they nevertheless exercised great confidence in God.

When he returned to Ireland seven years later, he had many fascinating stories to tell.  In the Navigatio, St. Brendan speaks of encountering

"mountains in the sea spouting fire",

floating crystal palaces,

monsters with catlike heads and horns growing from their mouths,

and "little furry men."

Scholars see in this account the earliest descriptions of Icelands volcanoes, icebergs, walruses, and even Eskimos.

It is unknown where they landed, but some of the descriptions make Newfoundland, Virginia, or even Florida likely candidates.  They did come back, however, with knowledge and samples of flora and fauna that were neither Irish nor European!



The Adventurers Challenge.

The True Explorers/Adventurers Grand Slam.

In April 2005, Park Young-Seok was a South Korean mountaineer. He is the first person in the world who completed a The True Explorers/Adventurers Grand Slam which additionally includes ascending -

all 14 Eight-thousander,

the Seven Summits,

the North Pole and

the South Pole.

The Explorers/Adventurers Grand Slam is an adventurers challenge to reach the North Pole, the South Pole and all of the Seven Summits.

foto- Paul Grover

David Kim Hempleman-Adams, British adventurer became the first to complete a The Explorers/Adventurers Grand Slam in 1998.

He is the first person in history to reach the Geographic and Magnetic North and South Poles.

The Eight-thousander

The eight-thousanders are the 14 independent mountains on Earth that are more than 8,000 metres high above sea level.

The first person to climb all 14 eight-thousanders was Reinhold Messner (a mountaineer, adventurer, explorer, and author from the Italia), who completed this task on October 16, 1986.

The first recorded successful ascent of an eight-thousander was by Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal (french mountaineers), who reached the summit of Annapurna on June 3, 1950.


The Seven Summits

The Seven Summits are the highest mountains of each of the seven continents. http://www.7summits.com

Richard "Dick" Bass (born in Oklahoma) became the first person to achieve the Seven summits on April 30, 1985.

First, one of the Seven Summits, Mount Kosciuszko, ascent by an expedition led by Polish explorer Count Pawel Edmund Strzelecki, 1840. Mount Kosciuszko is the highest mountain on the Australian continent.

Three Poles Challenge

The Three Poles is an adventurers challenge to reach all three of the North Pole, the South Pole, and Mount Everest.

The first person to reach all three poles was Sir Edmund Hillary (New Zealand mountaineer).

On 29 May 1953, Hillary and Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer Tenzing Norgay became the first climbers confirmed as having reached the summit of Mount Everest.

He reached the South Pole in January 1958 and made it to the North Pole in company with Neil Armstrong in April 1985.

The both Poles

English adventurer Ranulph Fiennes is the first person visit both the North and South Poles by surface means. Arriving at the South Pole on December 17, 1980 and reaching the North Pole on April 11, 1982.

The first undisputed explorers to walk on the North Pole ice were documented in 1969 during a British expedition led by British explorer Wally Herbert.

The first people to reach the Geographic South Pole were Norwegian Roald Amundsen and his party on December 14, 1911. 

The Most Isolated on the Planet.


♦ In September 1704, after the two ships had parted ways, Captain Stradling brought the Cinque Ports to an island known to the Spanish as Isla Más a Tierra in the uninhabited archipelago of Juan Fernández 670 km (420 mi) off the coast of Chile for a mid-expedition restocking of fresh water and supplies.
Scottish sailor Alexander Selkirk had grave concerns about the seaworthiness of the vessel. He would rather be left on Juan Fernández, he declared, than continue in a dangerously leaky ship. He probably wanted to make the needed repairs before going any further. Instead, Stradling decided to grant his request, and he was landed with his personal effects on the island. Being a voluntary castaway, Selkirk was able to gather numerous provisions to help him to survive, including a musket, gunpowder, carpenter's tools, a knife, a Bible, and clothing.

He survived on the island for four years and four months, building huts and hunting the plentiful wildlife before his rescue on 2 February 1709.
The Cinque Ports did indeed later founder off the coast of what is now Colombia. Stradling and some of his crew survived the loss of their ship but were forced to surrender to the Spanish. The survivors were taken to Lima in Peru where they endured a harsh imprisonment.


His adventures are said to be an inspiration for Robinson Crusoe, a novel by Daniel Defoe published in 1719. In 1966, Isla Más a Tierra was renamed Robinson Crusoe Island.

♦ "Not even Christopher Columbus stayed on the ocean so long!"

On October 28, 2005, Lucio Rendón, Salvador Ordóñez and Jesús Eduardo Vidaña, along with two other companions, set forth from the Mexican port of San Blas, Nayarit, to catch sharks 30 miles south of the Islas Marías in a 28-foot fiberglass boat. But they exhausted their fuel and strong easterly winds cast them adrift in the Northern Equatorial Current which crosses the Pacific Ocean from Mexico to the Marshall Islands.

Three Mexican fishermen survived for nine months on raw fish, seagulls and sea turtles and by collecting rain water in empty gasoline containers. Water was scarce during the first month, as it did not rain, but then when winter came, cold front after cold front brought clouds and rain which may have saved their lives. Too poor to afford a radio, the fishermen had no way to contact help. They realized that it would be easier to cross the ocean to the west, rather than attempting to turn into the wind to return to Mexico. The three survivors fashioned a sail with the blankets they carried on board and chose to sail westwards, following the wind and the currents. They sailed  286 days at an average of 4 kilometers per hour. The record for the longest time on a stranded vessel at sea.

They made fishing hooks with strings and wire from the engine, and caught sea turtles by diving into the ocean with a rope tied to their waists. They ate everything: meat, blood, bones, eggs, and so survived for nine months crossing two thirds of the Pacific Ocean (more than 8,800 km (5,500 mi)) westwards.

They spent time (by turns) in the shadow of the sail, and they read the Bible aloud during the 9 months they were lost in the ocean. They battled several storms, tossing the water overboard with buckets to keep their boat from overturning. The fishermen said they never lost faith in being rescued. The men were finally rescued by a Taiwanese fishing vessel. The survivors arrived in Majuro, the capital of the Marshall Islands.

!!!!!!  Mexican sailor survives 16 months adrift on the Pacific Ocean by catching turtles and birds with his bare hands and drinking their blood before washing up 8,000 miles away. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2549489/Mexican-sailor-survives-16-months-adrift-Pacific-Ocean-catching-turtles-birds-bare-hands-drinking-blood-washing-8-000-miles-away.html

Juana Maria (1811-1853), better known to history as the Lone Woman of San Nicolas Island (her Indian name is unknown), was a Native American woman who was the last surviving member of her tribe, the Nicoleño.

In 1811, approximately thirty Native Alaskan trappers from New Archangel were brought to San Nicolas by captain, from Boston, in order to hunt sea otters. The indigenous Nicoleño people opposed the hunting and over the course of a year the otter population was decimated, straining the trappers' tense relationship with the islanders. Conflict finally erupted when the trappers kidnapped some Nicoleño woman. Unlike the hunters, the Nicoleño lacked firearms and most of the men were massacred in the brief war. In 1814, another party of Native Alaskan trappers, this time working for the Russian-American Company (RAC), massacred most of the remaining islanders after a Nicoleño man was accused of killing a RAC supervisor. By 1835, the island's Native American population, which had once numbered 300, had shrunk to around 20. Some sources give the number as seven, all female except for one man.

When news of the devastation reached the mainland, the Santa Barbara Mission decided to sponsor a rescue operation. In late November 1835, the schooner Peor es Nada, left Monterey under contract to remove the remaining people living on San Nicolas. Upon arriving at the island, sailors gathered the Indians on the beach and brought them aboard. Juana Maria, however, was not among them. By the time a strong storm arose, and the Peor es Nada's crew, realizing the imminent danger of being wrecked by the surf and rocks, panicked and sailed toward the mainland, leaving her behind.

She lived alone on San Nicolas Island from 1835 until her discovery in 1853! Just seven weeks after arriving on the mainland, Juana Maria died. Nidever claimed her fondness for green corn, vegetables and fresh fruit after years of little such nutrient-laden food caused the severe and ultimately fatal illness.

Scott O'Dell's award-winning children's novel Island of the Blue Dolphins (1960) was inspired by her story.

♦ The Australian man has been living on tiny Restoration Island off the north-eastern coast of Australia since 1993 after the former high-flying Sydney businessman lost £6.5 million in the 1987 stock market crash.

The Supreme Court in Queensland, Australia has ruled that he must vacate the island after failing lease conditions.

Living off crabs and coconuts, and connected to solar-powered internet, David Glasheen has enjoyed a life of private tranquillity his dog Quasi, calling himself "the luckiest bloke in the world". While he loves his life in paradise, Glasheen does get lonely and several years ago tried internet dating to find Girl Friday to live with him. He got hundreds of responses but had no luck in love.

Asked what he will do if he is forced to leave his island home he said: I have no idea. I live on now. Tomorrow I might be dead.


♦ Japanese soldier who continued fighting World War II a full 29 years after the Japanese surrendered, because he didnt know the war was over.

When Hiroo Onoda was 20 years old, he was called to join the Japanese army. At a certain point in his training, he was chosen to be trained at Nakano School as an Imperial Army Intelligence Officer. In this specialized military intelligence training, he was specifically taught methods of gathering intelligence and how to conduct guerrilla warfare. He was being groomed to go in behind enemy lines and be left with small pockets of soldiers to make life miserable for Japans enemies and gather intelligence in the process.

On December 26th, 1944, Onoda was sent to Lubang Island in the Philippines. His orders from his commanding officers, Major Yoshimi Taniguchi, were simple:

"You are absolutely forbidden to die by your own hand. It may take three years, it may take five, but whatever happens, well come back for you. Until then, so long as you have one soldier, you are to continue to lead him. You may have to live on coconuts. If thats the case, live on coconuts! Under no circumstances are you give up your life voluntarily."

Shortly after the island was conquered the remaining Japanese soldiers split up into small groups of 3 or 4 and headed into the jungle.Most of these small groups were quickly killed off.  Onodas group though consisting of himself, Yuichi Akatsu, Siochi Shimada, and Kinshichi Kozuka, were not.  They continued to use guerrilla warfare tactics to harry the enemy troops as best they could while strictly rationing supplies including food, ammo, etc.  Supplementing their small rice rations with bananas, coconuts, and other food from the jungle as well as doing raids on local farms when they could manage it.

In October 1945, after another cell had killed a cow from a local farm for food, they came across a leaflet from the local islanders to them saying "The war ended August 15th.  Come down from the mountains!" The few remaining cells discussed this leaflet extensively, but eventually decided that it was Allied propaganda trying to get them to give themselves up.  They felt that there was no way that Japan could have lost so quickly since the time when they were deployed. 

Years passed in the jungle with these four soldiers continuing to perform their sworn duty of harrying the enemy at every opportunity and gather intelligence as best they could.  Eventually, after about 5 years in the jungle, Akatsu decided he would surrender, but didnt tell the other three soldiers.  In October 1972 Kozuka was killed during a fight with a Filipino patrol.   The Japanese had long thought he had already died, they didnt think he could have survived so long in the jungle.  But now when they had his body, they began thinking perhaps Onoda was also still alive, even though he had also long since been declared dead.

Finally in 1974 a college student, Nario Suzuki, decided to travel the world.  Among his list of things to do on his journey was to find "Onoda, a panda, and the Abominable Snowman".He found Onodas dwelling place and Onoda himself.

Over the years he had been too successful at using the guerrilla tactics he had mastered.  Killing 30 Filipinos and injuring over 100 others as well as destroying various crops and the like for almost 30 years. Suzuki then traveled back to Japan with the news hed found Onoda; Major Taniguchi, now retired and working at a book store, was then brought back to the island and to Onoda to tell him that Japan had lost the war and he was to give up his weapons and surrender to the Filipinos.

As you might expect, after living in the jungle doing what he thought was his duty helping Japan, now only turning out to be wasting 29 years of his life, and worse killing and injuring innocent civilians, this came as a crushing blow to Onoda.

On 1975 at the age of 52, Onoda in full uniform that was somehow still immaculately kept, marched out of the jungle and surrendered his samurai sword to the Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos. Marcos pardoned Onoda for his crimes, given that Onoda had thought he was still at war the entire time.

"The Last Japanese Soldier" Documentary by Howie Severino - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-anE6jKwqJo

Ho Van Lang, 42, and his 82-year-old father described as jungle men have been discovered in a Vietnamese forest where they lived for 40 years. Ho Van Thanh fled with his two-year-old son into the wilderness when two of his children and his mother were killed by a mine explosion in the Vietnam War. Never realizing that the war had ended, the two remained in hiding for the next forty years.

Vietnamese media tracked down another son of Mr Ho senior  a man named Ho Van Tri, who said that he discovered his father and brother 20 years ago, but had not been able to persuade them to return to modern society. The pair were said to be barely able to communicate with outsiders, with Mr Ho junior only knowing a few words of the local dialect of the Cor ethnic minority group, while his father had fallen out of the habit of speech.

They wore loincloths made of bark and used a homemade axe to chop down trees for firewood. They survived on corn that they had grown, plus fruits and cassava roots from the jungle. Inside their treehouse home, five metres in the air, the pair kept a stash of arrows for hunting and knives for killing animals.

Both men were treated by physicians and will attempt to reintegrate into modern society.

♦ It's Yorkshire's Robinson Crusoe - "Daily Mail".

In 1962, the Yorkshireman Brendon Grimshaw bought Moyenne - a small island just half a mile wide - in the Seychelles for the princely sum of £8,000.

He spends his days caring for the islands tortoises and birds that also call it home. When he bought Moyenne, it was overgrown with scrub so dense that coconuts could not fall to the ground. But Brendon worked tirelessly to transform the island into his own little patch of heaven. Living in this unique wildlife reserve, he has survived tropical storms, sharks, ghosts, a coup detat in the Seychelles and a mercenary raid.

Its where he looks after his 120 giant tortoises. Among the worlds longest living creatures, they have been known to survive for more than 180 years. Giant tortoises are indigenous to the Seychelles, but have been killed off on most of the other islands. Brendon has been gradually reintroducing them to his corner of the Indian Ocean, painting them with identifying numbers and giving them names such as Alice, Florita and Four Degrees South (the islands latitude).

He still has hopes of finding the pirate treasure rumoured to be buried somewhere on the island. More than 200 years ago, the Seychelles were a hideaway for pirates, including the infamous Oliver Levasseur, known as The Buzzard, who was hanged in Mauritius in July 1730.

..I asked him if hes ever been lonely. "Yes, only once in my life - when I was living in a bedsit in London. I was miserable then, but never here!"..

Brendon is not a recluse. He relishes visitors and company, and regrets not marrying.  Even now, he is not alone. Day-trippers are allowed to visit from Mahe for £10 each. Brendon has a strict rule that no one is allowed to stay overnight, but some visitors try to linger a little longer.

Brendon is the modern Robinson Crusoe, says Joel Morgan, environment minister for the Seychelles. Hes a naturalist, a conservationist and a damned hard worker.

Brendon Grimshaw born in 1925, died in july 2012..

  The last paradise on Earth, Documentaire over Brendon Grimshaw. - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PmqLeMwh9z8

♦ In 1978, Russian geologists journeyed to a remote location in the Siberian wilderness, but instead of discovering precious mineral resources, they uncovered a family of six who had been living undetected for forty years.

Karp Lykov and his family were Old Believers, members of a fundamentalist Russian Orthodox sect which had been persecuted since the days of Peter the Great in the early 18th century. During the Bolshevik Revolution, many Old Believer communities fled to Siberia to escape religious persecution, and the Lykovs were among them. In 1936, a Communist patrol shot Lykov's brother right in front of him, so he gathered up his wife and two young children and fled into the forest. Taking just their meagre possessions and some seeds, they progressively moved further and further from society until they were about one hundred miles from the border of Mongolia, 150 miles from the nearest settlement. The Siberian taiga is one of the last remaining wildernesses on earth - thousands of square miles of dense pine forest, rugged mountain valleys, white water rivers and impenetrable bogs.

In 1940 son Dmitry was born, followed two years later by daughter Agafia. They would not see another human being for 38 years.

A particularly hard frost in 1961 killed everything in their garden and they were reduced to eating their leather shoes. Miraculously when the frost thawed, a single grain of rye sprouted on their pear patch - they guarded it day and night to keep mice and squirrels away. They managed to harvest a further 18 grains from which painstakingly they built up a rye crop.

The family had no idea that things like the moon landing or World War II had even happened. They were fascinated by small things like the cellophane on a package. Karp, who was well into his 80s was fascinated by a pice of cellophane, declaring: 'Lord, what have they thought up? It is glass but it crumples.'

Over time the younger children had developed a strange dialect that outsiders could barely recognize as Russian. After the geologists made contact, the family slowly began to trust them, but the deeply religious family always refused to leave their isolated home. Eventually, they started to accept small gifts of salt and other precious foods that they had lived without for so many years.

Karps wife Akulina died of hunger in 1961. Three of his children died in 1981. Children all died within weeks of each other, presumably from pneumonia contracted from a visit by the geologists.Old Karp Lykov finally died in his sleep on February 16, 1988, 27 years to the day after the death of his wife Akulina. Incredibly Agafia, now well into her 70s, lives on her little family plot to this day.



♦ In 1962, a French speleologist named Michel Siffre spent two months living in total isolation in a subterranean cave, without access to clock, calendar, or sun. Sleeping and eating only when his body told him to, his goal was to discover how the natural rhythms of human life would be affected by living "beyond time". Over the next decade, Siffre organized over a dozen other underground time isolation experiments, before he himself returned to a cave in Texas in 1972 for a six-month spell. His work helped found the field of human chronobiology.


♦ NASA had previously partnered with Marine Resources Development Foundation (Project Atlantis) in 1992, on the "La Chalupa-30" mission, which simulated the isolation conditions of a long term space mission by placing aquanauts in an undersea habitat for 30 days. The program raised public awareness about the possibilities of living and working in the sea,  explore the human factors of living in an undersea environment and resulted in the establishment of a world record, which is still unbroken, for living in an undersea habitat. Rick Presley (USA) spent 69 days 19 min in a module underwater
at Jules Undersea Lodge/ La Chalupa habitat in Key Largo, Florida, USA from 6 May to 14 July 1992

Babu Chiri Sherpa (June 22, 1965 - April 29, 2001) was a Sherpa mountaineer from Nepal. He was a legendary guide who reached the summit of Mount Everest ten times. He spent 21 hours on the summit of Everest without auxiliary oxygen in 1999.


"..my next world record will be to spend 24 hours at the top of Everest.." - Pemba Dorjee Sherpa     http://english.ohmynews.com/articleview/article_view.asp?no=240239&rel_no=1 

Valeri Vladimirovich Polyakov  is a Russian former cosmonaut. He is the holder of the record for the longest single spaceflight in human history, staying aboard the Mir space station for more than 14 months (437 days 18 hours) during one trip. Polyakov completed his second flight into space in 1994-1995, spending 437 days in space between launching on Soyuz TM-18 and landing on TM-20.


 ♦  Scientists discover prehistoric cave with eight new species in Ramle, Israel. Caves ecosystem said to date back 5 million years, when Mediterranean Sea covered the area. The caves ecosystem probably dates back around five million years when the Mediterranean Sea covered parts of Israel. The cave was completely sealed off from the world, including from water and nutrients seeping through rock crevices above. Scientists who discovered the cave believe it has been intact for millions of years.

Every species had no eyes which means they lost their sight due to evolution. Samples of the animals discovered in the cave were sent for DNA tests which found they were unique.

he cave, which has been dubbed the Ayalon Cave, is "unique in the world," said Professor Amos Frumkin of the Hebrew University Department of Geography. This is due mainly to its isolation from the outside world, since the cave's surface is situated under a layer of chalk that is impenetrable to water. The cave, with its branches, extends over some 2.5 kilometers, making it Israels second largest limestone cave. It is to remain closed to the public to permit further scientific research.

The invertebrate animals found in the cave - four seawater and freshwater crustaceans and four terrestrial species - are related to but different from other, similar life forms known to scientists.It is estimated that these species are millions of years old. Also found in the cave were bacteria that serve as the basic food source in the ecosystem.

Among the interesting features of the discoveries thus far in the cave is that two of the crustaceans are seawater species and two others are of a types found in fresh or brackish water. This can provide insights into events occurring millions of years ago regarding the history of ancient bodies of water in the region.

This is the only movie ever taken inside the cave showing white and blind prehistoric crustaceans swimming in the pool. - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M6z4ZvH65kQ

♦ Pensioner David Latimer from Cranleigh, Surrey, with his bottle garden that was first planted 53 years ago and has not been watered since 1972 - yet continues to thrive in its sealed environment.

David Latimer first planted his bottle garden in 1960 and last watered it in 1972 before tightly sealing it shut "as an experiment". For the last 40 years it has been completely sealed from the outside world. The bottle garden has created its own miniature ecosystem. Despite being cut off from the outside world, because it is still absorbing light it can photosynthesise, the process by which plants convert sunlight into the energy they need to grow.

Photosynthesis creates oxygen and also puts more moisture in the air. The moisture builds up inside the bottle and "rains" back down on the plant. The leaves it drops rot at the bottom of the bottle, creating the carbon dioxide also needed for photosynthesis and nutrients which it absorbs through its roots. He added that this process is one reason why NASA was interested in taking plants into space. He hopes to pass on the "experiment" to his grown-up children after he is gone. If they do not want it, he will leave it to the Royal Horticultural Society.

♦ The Copiapó mining accident, also known then as the "Chilean mining accident", began in 2010 as a significant cave-in at the troubled 121-year-old San José copper gold mine. The mine is located deep in the Atacama Desert, one of the driest and harshest regions on earth, about 45 km north of the regional capital of Copiapó, in northern Chile, South America.The buried men, who became known as "Los 33", were trapped 700 m underground and about 5 km from the mines entrance via spiraling underground service ramps. The mixed crew of experienced miners and technical support personnel, with less experience working underground, survived for a record 69 days deep underground before their rescue.

♦ Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571, also known as the Andes flight disaster and, in South America, as the Miracle of the Andes was a chartered flight carrying 45 people, including a rugby team, their friends, family and associates that crashed in the Andes on 13 October 1972. More than a quarter of the passengers died in the crash and several others quickly succumbed to cold and injury. Of the 29 who were alive a few days after the accident, another eight were killed by an avalanche that swept over their shelter in the wreckage. The last 16 survivors were rescued on 23 December 1972, more than two months after the crash.

Aron Lee Ralston survived a canyoneering accident in south-eastern Utah in 2003, during which he amputated his own right forearm with a dull multi-tool in order to extricate himself from a dislodged boulder, underneath which he had been trapped for five days and seven hours. After he freed himself, he had to rappel down a 20 m sheer cliff face to reach safety.


Cornelius Rost Walked Across Stalinist Russia

Cornelius Rost was a German World War II soldier taken prisoner by the Russians in 1945. He was sent to a Gulag camp in northern Siberia, where he worked at the face of a lead mine for 4 years.

A Soviet lead mine on Cape Dezhnev was probably about the worst place ever to have to spend any length of time, what with the constant threat of immediate cave-in death counterbalanced by the more subtle threat of drawn-out lead-poisoning death. As you would expect, the prisoners of war who were sent there immediately wanted to leave.

He was almost killed after an escape attempt-the camp doctor (another german prisoner) nursed him back to health-and helped him escape. Cornelius got some supplies together (given to him by another inmate who himself was planning to escape) that included cross-country skis and a pistol. He then set off, heading west with four other escapees. One of the prisoners betrayed and shot three others, then shoved Rost down a cliff and left him for dead.

Hitching in trucks across Central Asia and just straight-up robbing a train station, Rost made it to the North Caucasus and wound up in Samarkand where he used his money and he was befriended by a jewish guy who got him a false passport and an exit visa. Jewish guy helps to cross the border to Iran and from there he went back to Germany.

Forell spent 3 years crossing the USSR. The trip was 8700 miles (14000km)

Fearing a possible backlash by the post-war Allied authorities, Rost agreed to an oral interview only after being granted the use of the alias Clemens Forell.

He had been color blind because he was forced to work during his imprisonment in Russias lead mines.

♦ Hero who walked 4,000 miles from Siberian death camp.

Witold Glinski
, who has died aged 86, claimed to have taken part in the so-called "Long Walk", in which a group of prisoners was said to have escaped from a Second World War Siberian Gulag and trekked 4,000 miles to freedom in British India.
Separated from his parents, he was taken to Moscows notorious Lubianka Prison and, aged just 17, condemned to 25 years hard labour, one among a million-and-a-half Poles sent to Siberia. It might as well have been a death sentence. So, he could either wait to die, or try to get away. Witold began plotting his escape as soon as he arrived, shackled in chains.
He volunteered to work as a lumberjack, and secretly carved signs on the trees, pointing the way to the south, and the free world.
Seven men were in the break-out, in February 1941. Only four reached safety, at a British base over the Indian border, the following January.
He trekked through frozen forests, over mountains and across deserts on a journey that took 11 months. How he endured the deep freeze of a Siberian winter, the thin air of the Himalayas and the stifling heat of the Gobi desert, learned to live off the land, battled against disease and avoided hostile tribes of nomads in China and Mongolia, to reach sanctuary.

"The weather was too bad for patrols to operate, no animal or human would stick a nose out of the door, so this was our only chance. Our immediate aim was to get out of Russia. The border was 2500 km away. I pointed south - "That way!""

Witold growing up in the country, he had learned which plants and fungi were edible and how to cook them, how to hunt fish and trap animals.

Gradually fields and forests gave way to sand dunes and bare rocks, and the marchers came to their toughest test, sweltering in temperatures of 40ºC in daytime, freezing at night, and ravaged by dust storms.

"We walked in the dark, and sheltered from the sun under our ragged clothes propped on sticks," Witold says. Wolves and jackals would circle around us.

For water, we sucked frost from stones in the early morning, then turned them over and found moisture below. We got so thirsty we even sipped our own perspiration, and some drank their urine.

In the final two weeks of their march, Witold had become ill and weak, and he can remember only snatches of images. 

The most remote island is Bouvet Island, an uninhabited and small Norwegian island in the South Atlantic Ocean. The nearest land is the uninhabited Queen Maud Land, Antarctica, over 1,600 km away to the south. The nearest inhabited lands are Tristan da Cunha, 2,260 km away and South Africa, 2,580 km away.

The most remotest inhabited island in the world is archipelago Tristan da Cunha in the South Atlantic Ocean, 2,816 km from South Africa and 3,360 km from South America. With a population of c. 270

Vostok Station is a Russian (formerly Soviet) research station in inland Princess Elizabeth Land, Antarctica. The station lies at the southern Pole of Cold, with the lowest reliably measured natural temperature on Earth of −89.2 °C
Vostok Research Station is about 1300 km from the Geographic South Pole, at the center of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet.
The station is at 3,488 meters above sea level and is one of the most isolated established research stations on the Antarctic continent. The station was supplied from Mirny Station on the Antarctic coast. How long does it take to get from mirny station to vostok station by train tractor? - 43 day (1959), 54 day (1963).

Unique Tall Ships race.

Nowadays, the Tall Ships Race is one of the most prestigious international events in the field of traditional sailing.

The Tall Ships Regatta differs from the other nautical events through the competing boats special features and its rules.

    Every year, the sailors are on board for several weeks. The crews include professional sailors as well as trainees. Such a mix allows for the sharing of marine knowledge with the novices. Participating vessels are manned by a largely cadet or trainee crew who are partaking in sail training, 50 percent of which must be aged between 15-25 years of age and who do not need any previous experience.
  Tall ship does not describe a specific type of sailing vessel, but rather a monohull sailing vessel of at least 9.4 metres (30 ft) that is conducting sail training and education under sail voyages. Participating ships range from yachts to the large square-rigged sail training ships run by charities, schools and navies of many countries.
    To determine the winner, criteria such as team spirit and sporting performances are taken into account during the entire event.
    The winner is not necessarily the fastest one.
    These rules make the Tall Ships Regatta a unique race.

The race series typically attracts 70-100 sail training vessels, providing an opportunity for the young trainee crews to mix with their contemporaries from other nations and visit new communities.

The itinerary and the geographical areas change depending on the year: Atlantic, Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean, Black Sea. The taste for adventure and discovery leads the ships and their sailors to expand their horizons.

The Races usually comprise four ports with a race between port one and two, a social Cruise in Company between Ports two and three and a second race between ports three and four. Each port organises a programme of social, sports and cultural events and activities for the trainee crews. The final day in port includes a crew parade through the streets and a prize-giving. The arrival of the ships, berthing, undocking and the Parade of Sail are all handled by each ports harbourmaster, while a system of volunteer liaison officers, organised by local people, look after each vessel and its crew.

The ultimate goal that the regatta pursue is the "sail training" education of young people and the development of essential life skills on tall ships.

Usually, two races and one friendly race are held. Despite prizes for winning the races, there are also special prizes for the most friendly crews. The main trophy is awarded to the ship which, in the opinion of the captains and crews of all the ships taking part, has done most to "promote international friendship and understanding". No wonder, that such an idea attracts more and more cities to host sailors, while the sport events, maritime games and feasts in pubs and on the streets draw large numbers of residents and tourists, who come to see the meeting from far away. The gatherings of tall ships have become increasingly popular among port cities which queue up for staging the event and endeavour to obtain the right to host the fleet. The route of the race is unalterably drawn through different countries up to the final harbour.


In 1938, on the initiative of Captain Arnold Schumburg, a few sailing ships gathered in Stockholm, which is perceived as the first though unofficial Tall Ship Race.

After World War Two the idea was picked up by a british lawyer Bernard Morgan, who proposed to have regular races, so that sailing ships, which at that time were starting to be overwhelmed by the steam ships, could be brought back to life. Impressed by this initiative, Count Mountbatten and the Duke of Edinburgh joined him.

The first official regatta was held under the patronage of Prince of Edinburgh in 1956, on the route between English Dartmouth-Torbay and Portuguese Lisbon. There were 21 sailing ships from various countries (Argentina, Belgium, France, Italy etc.) in the race. Needless to say, some of them like Norwegian: Christian Radich and Soerlandet, or Swedish: Falken and Gladan are sailing to this present day! The event was so successful that its organisational committee was turned into a permanent organisation, and after years it became to be known as Sail Training International. http://www.sailtraininginternational.org/

The British Moyana was the winner overall, beating the Norwegian Christian Radich into second place. Disaster struck on the way back to Southampton, however, when Moyana got into difficulties in a storm and sank. All 23 officers and crew were taken off safely and they even had the presence of mind to take their winning trophy off with them!

That first race was only planned to be a one-off, but it attracted such huge press coverage, particularly in the countries of the vessels taking part, that the Committee decided to repeat the event in 1958 and thereafter every second year.
Shipwright First Class Ron Davidson (aged 29) receiving the award on behalf of the crew of Merlin, 1960
The event turned out to be a great success and the media called it the Tall Ships Race, a name which has stuck! With the success of this first year, the organisers decided to repeat the event annually.
The number of sailboats quickly increased and the race gained greater popularity.

In the early 1960s, Mr. Braynard met with a like-minded friend, Nils Hansell, and conceived of a parade of tall-masted ships for the 1964 New York Worlds Fair. With help from people like Thomas J. Watson Jr., then chairman of I.B.M., the idea was endorsed by President John F. Kennedy. The first Op Sail, more modest than its successors, was later dedicated to Kennedy.

Frank O. Braynard
Operation Sail, Inc., (OpSail) is a non-profit organization established in 1961 with the endorsement of President John F. Kennedy. Backed by a Joint Congressional Resolution, its mission is to advance sail training and promote goodwill among nations. OpSail has produced five previous international sailing events in 1964, 1976, 1986, 1992, and 2000, each tied to a patriotic or historical event.
The competition was conceived and grew with the aim of promoting traditional sailing to youth from all over the world, encouraging them to sail together and create new bonds of solidarity and friendship. http://www.opsail.org/

    The Tall Ships Races became so popular, that in 1972 it was decided to sail in odd years as well. It was the first year when a friendly race was run, during which crews change place on ships with other sailors.

It is now known as Cruise in Company, during which ships sail in full dress if the weather allows to unfurl the sails and never compete.

In 1972, the competition became sponsored by the drinks company Cutty Sark.

The full integration was possible due to the sponsor of the races, a producer of Scotch whiskey with the image of Cutty Sark, a beautiful 19th century tea clipper. That is the reason why the event was those days called The Cutty Sark Tall Ships Races.

In the same year, a Polish training ship Dar Pomorza took part in the competition. It was the first time in the history when a ship from so called Eastern Block sailed the race. Unexpectedly, Dar Pomorza in its debut on the route from Solent to Skaw become an instant winner!

In the 1970s Dar Pomorza took part in several Operation Sail and Cutty Sark Tall Ships Races, winning her first race in 1972, taking the 3rd place in 1973, the 4th in 1974 and winning the 1st place and Cutty Sark Trophy in 1980. It was one of several Blohm & Voss-built tall ships, most popular in the world at that time. Since 1983 Dar Pomorza has been a museum ship in Gdynia.

1976 - the ships raced from the Canary Islands to Bermuda, then proceeded to New York, where they were met by a vast spectator fleet. One by one, on July 4, 1976, towering ships glided below the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, then unfurled their sails. There were nearly 300 large ships from more than 50 countries in the 18-mile-long caravan up the Hudson, including 16 of the approximately 25 masted tall ships remaining in the world at the time. Among them were the United States square-rigger Eagle; the British schooner Sir Winston Churchill, with an all-female crew; the Romanian bark Mircea; and the Russian four-masted Kruzenshtern, out of Murmansk.

From the deck of the USS Forrestal, President Gerald Ford reviewed the parade of sail, complete with a 21-gun salute. In Frank Braynards estimation, it was the biggest assemblage of ships since the Battle of Navarino in 1827, and as one skipper recalled, The hospitality of New Yorkers in 1976 has never been matched.

Operation Sail 1976 was a centerpiece for the U.S. Bicentennial celebration. The event, five years in the works, featured more tall ships than the 1964 gathering, including the USSRs Kruzenshtern, which Frank Braynard had won over against all political odds on a trip to Moscow.

Mr. Braynard and Mr. Slotnick had traveled to Europe, Asia and the Soviet Union to persuade governments and private owners to send their tall ships to New York. They had sailed on the Kruzenshtern for three days in their lobbying effort.
As chief executive of Operation Sail, Mr. Braynard, along with his colleague Howard Slotnick, organized three more Op Sails. None would have the impact of the 1976 Bicentennial event, which took place during the cold war, while New York was facing a fiscal crisis and racial strife.

An estimated five million people lined the New York and New Jersey shores that day, (5 million spectators onshore watched the ships parade on Hudson River in New York!) and more than 10,000 small private boats bearing spectators were kept out of the parade route by 150 Coast Guard vessels. It was of great importance to the future of races: American media joined the event and thus it gained in popularity.

Russian cadets who were in Op Sail 76 told us that this was their first real contact with the United States and their first understanding that Americans were not devils, not the enemy, Mr. Stanford said.

In the 1964 the first race of 15 vessels over the Atlantic Ocean was organised, which ran from Plymouth to Bermudas. In Bermudas two more ships joined the fleet, and they all sailed to New York.

In 1976 Americans celebrated the 200th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, and the fleet once more sailed the ocean.

The next transatlantic races were held in 1984. When the fleet left Bermudas, in the early hours of the 3rd of June, English ship Marquess was hit by a sudden squall and a large, rogue wave, and was knocked down onto her starboard side. 

Three masted brig Marques built in 1917 lost in a freak storm in 1984.

In the 1984 she sailed to San Juan, Puerto Rico to compete in the Cutty Sark Tall Ships Races. The Marques won the first tall ships race, from Puerto Rico to Bermuda. The ship left Hamilton on the second race, bound for Halifax, Nova Scotia, on 2 June 1984. On the night of 2 June the ship ran into a gale. In the early hours of 3 June she was hit by a sudden squall and a large wave, possibly a rogue wave, and was knocked down onto her starboard side. Although the ship had been converted to a sail training and charter cruise ship, she had retained the main cargo hatch from her days as a commercial vessel. When she was knocked down the main hatch was breached and water flooded into the interior of the ship. She sank in less than a minute, with the loss of 19 of her 28 crew members.


In 1988 ships sailed to Australia, which celebrated 200th anniversary of settlement.

In 1992, on the occasion of 500th anniversary of discovery of America, another transatlantic regatta was organised.

Next transatlantic races were organised to commemorate the third millennium, and were named Tall Ships 2000.

In 2002, the newly formed association « Sail Training International » (STI) became the main organiser of the race, gathering together 26 participating countries. Its representative in France is the Association des Amis des Grands Voiliers.

After 30 year, in 2003, the endorsement agreement between Tall Ships Races and whisky producer expired. It was the last time when regatta was named as The Cuty Sark Tall Ships Races.

In 2004 race was ran under the name of Tall Ships Races, and it were presented and sponsored by Antwerp.

In 2006, the Tall Ships Races celebrated their 50th anniversary. A race was prepared, which ran from St. Malo in France, through the North Sea and Bay of Biscay to Torbay in Portugal, with the goal in Antwerp, Belgium. The first race of the Tall Ships Races took place on the same route as half a century ago. Well, there was a small difference: there were four times more boats!

In 2007, for the first time in history, rally was presented by Szczecin. City became also the STI partner, involved in organisation the races in years 2010-2013.

In 2012 the final was hosted by the green Dublin. Competition was won by Polish Fryderyk Chopin.

Transatlantic Tall Ship Regatta in 2017 are the 150th anniversary of the Canadian Confederation through its founders and foundi.

Outside the summer months, the Mediterranean race becomes the Tall Ships Regatta and the organiser does not compel the ships to embark under-25 trainees as half of their crew anymore.

     By the 21st century, "Tall ship" is often used generically for large, classic, sailing vessels, but is also a technically defined term by Sail Training International for its purposes and of course, STI helped popularize the term. The exact definitions have changed somewhat over time, and are subject to various technicalities, but by 2011 there were 4 classes (A, B, C, and D). Basically there are only two size classes, A is over 40 m LOA, and B/C/D are 9.14 m to under 40 m LOA. The definitions have to do with rigging: class A is for square sail rigged ships, class B is for "traditionally rigged" ships, class C is for "modern rigged" vessels with no "spinnaker - like sails", and class D is the same as class C but carrying a spinnaker-like sail.

There are four classes of vessel:

Class A
All square  rigged vessels (barque, barquentine, brig, brigantine or ship rigged).

Class B
Traditionally rigged vessels (ie gaff rigged sloops, ketches, yawls and schooners).

Class C
Modern rigged vessels (i.e Bermudan rigged sloops, ketches, yawls and schooners).

Class D

Modern rigged vessels (i.e Bermudan rigged sloops, ketches, yawls and schooners).



Survival experts.

Bear Grylls - Les Stroud - Ed Wardle - Dave Canterburys - Lofty Wiseman - Rüdiger Nehberg - Lars Monsen - Cody Lundin - Les Hiddings - Ray Mears - Mors Kochanski - Bradford Angier - Paul Kirtley - Tom BrownDaniel W. Shrigley - Mykel Hawke and his wife Ruth England - David Arama - John McPherson - Ron Hood.


Bear Grylls

Is a British adventurer, writer and television presenter. He is best known for his television series Man vs. Wild.

Bear Grylls travels around the globe to find the most dangerous tourist locations and environments, in order to show us how to survive in them. With his simple survival techniques and his knowledge of the wildlife, he is able to give handy tips... Written by Nikola Popovic

Trained from a young age in martial arts. He has a second Dan Black Belt in Shotokan Karate. Bear went on to spend three years as a soldier in the British Special Forces, serving with 21 SAS. Was awarded an honorary commission as a Lieutenant-Commander in the Royal Navy.

On 16 May 1998, Grylls climbed to the summit of Mount Everest, 18 months after breaking three vertebrae in a parachuting accident  in Zambia.During an SAS Skydive his parachute ripped at 16,000ft.After three grueling months climbing on the peak, Bear entered The Guinness Book of Records as one Everests youngest ever summiteers (23 years) and returned alive. While preparing for Everest, he became the youngest briton to climb Ama Dablam, a peak described by sir edmund hillary as ?unclimable?.


The Scout Association - He is the tenth person and the youngest ever Chief Scout to 28 million Scouts worldwide. Chief Scout since the role was created for Robert Baden-Powell in 1920.     http://scouts.org.uk/home/     http://beargryllssurvivalacademy.com/

Bear Grylls books-

five teenager fiction survival books titled Mission Survival - http://www.missionsurvival.co.uk/

Scouting (Living Wild).

Born Survivor.

Facing Up.

Facing the Frozen Ocean .

Great Outdoor Adventures.

With Love Papa.

To My Sons.

Mud Sweat & Tears. (bestseller!)

A Survival Guide for Life.

Bear Grylls Filmography -

Escape to the Legion (2005) four-part TV show

Born Survivor / Man vs. Wild (2006-2011) 7 seasons, 68 episodes (list of episodes-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Man_vs._Wild_episodes)

Worst Case Scenario (2010) 12 episodes

Bears Wild Weekend (2011) two-episode

Get Out Alive (2013)

Bear went on to star in Discovery Channels Emmy nominated Man Vs Wild and Born Survivor TV series, which has become one of the most watched shows on the planet, reaching an estimated 1.2 billion viewers.

The show has featured stunts including Grylls climbing cliffs, parachuting from helicopters, balloons, and planes, paragliding, ice climbing, running through a forest fire, wading rapids, eating snakes, wrapping his urine-soaked t-shirt around his head to help stave off the desert heat, drinking urine saved in a rattlesnake skin, drinking fecal liquid from elephant dung, eating deer droppings, eating the heart of dead animals, wrestling alligators, field dressing a camel carcass and drinking water from it, eating various "creepy crawlies" insects, utilising the corpse of a sheep as a sleeping bag and flotation device, free climbing waterfalls and using a bird guano/water enema for hydration. Grylls also regales the viewer with tales of adventurers stranded or killed in the wilderness.

Bear owns an outdoor adventure clothing company partnered with Craghoppers, as well as a line of survival kits, knives, multi-tools and other outdoor equipment with Gerber. Bears Ultimate Knife has become the biggest selling knife in the world.  http://www.beargryllsstore.com/eu/

Other expeditions-

In 2000 Grylls led the team to circumnavigate British Isles on Jet Skis, taking about 30 days.

In 2003 crossing the north Atlantic Ocean, in an open rigid inflatable boat.

In 2005, Grylls led the first team ever to attempt to paramotor over the remote jungle plateau of the Angel Falls in Venezuela, the worlds highest uninterrupted waterfall.

In 2005 created a world record for the highest open-air formal dinner party, which Grylls did under a hot-air balloon at 7600 m.

In 2007, Grylls embarked ona record-setting Parajet paramotor in Himalayas near Mount Everest. He took off from 4,400 metres, 8 miles south of the mountain.

In 2008, Grylls lead a team of four to climb one of the most remote unclimbed peaks in the world in Antarctica.

In 2008 Grylls set a Guinness world record  for the longest continuous indoor freefall.

In 2010, Grylls lead a team of five to take an ice-breaking rigid-inflatable boat (RIB) through 4000 km of the ice strewn Northwest Passage.



Les Stroud

Is a Canadian, filmmaker, musician and survival expert best known as the creator, writer, producer, director, cameraman and host of the television series Survivorman.

In 1990 Stroud became a guide for Black Feather Wilderness Adventures leading canoe excursions into the Northern Ontario wilds.

After his marriage to Jamison in 1994, the two of them spent one year in the Canadian wilderness to attempt a paleolithic existence. In the Northwest Territories where Stroud was employed as an outdoor instructor to special needs individuals of aboriginal descent. Stroud filmed their primitive living experience and released the 50 minute documentary, Snowshoes and Solitude, which was named Best Documentary at the Muskoka Film Festival and Best Film at the Waterwalker Film Festival.

Stroud and Jamison started both the outdoor instructional outfit Wilderness Voice and the media company Wilderness Spirit Productions.

Inspired by the popularity of the television show Survivor, Stroud pitched a more authentic version of the show to The Discovery Channel Canada. Stroud produced two programs titled One Week in the Wilderness and Winter in the Wilderness for Discovery Chanel in 2001.

The success of these specials led to the development of Survivorman, a show that followed a similar format of leaving Stroud on his own, with minimal equipment, in the wilderness to videotape his survival experience. His camera and audio gear typically weigh about 23 kg in total.


Stroud produced 23 episodes of the show which began airing in 2004. Stroud also composed and performed the opening theme music of Survivorman.

Stroud has extensive experience with survival and primitive living skills, initially training with expert David Arama.He went on to study with many others including John McPherson - Prairie Wolf.

In 2006, Stroud produced a special documenting his familys journey to building an off-the-grid home. The show, Off the Grid with Les Stroud, chronicled the process of buying property and refitting an old farm house with solar and wind power, a raincatcher and well, as well as the adjustments the Stroud family had to make to adapt to this style of living.

Strouds follow-up show to Survivorman was titled Beyond Survival with Les Stroud (10 episodes) and debuted in 2010. Les Stroud journeys the globe to unearth the secrets of how remote indigenous tribes have survived in the wild for thousands of years.

In September 2012, Stroud stated in a compilation show Survivorman Top-10 that at one time he had contracted a parasitic worm infestation in his mouth that lasted over a year. Stroud stated that although he was not sure of the origin of the malady he believes that the source was from Georgia swamp turtle meat.

His books Survive! and Will to Live have made the New York Times bestseller list. Nominated for Best Travel Writer at the Canadian National Magazine awards.

Stroud has been an active participant in adventure racing and has competed at the Canadian championships.

In addition to film making and wilderness survival, Stroud has also worked in the music industry as a professional musician. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HeXe7Io-VEY&list=PLE1D3F77B2F143FFD

A proud member of the prestigious Explorers Club.
Les received Fellow (highest rank) of the Royal Canadian Geographic Society
and is an advanced survival trainer for the Canadian Military Armed Forces.



Biggest cave in the world.

                               Sơn Đoòng

The biggest chamber of Sơn Đoòng is more than five kilometers long, 200 meters high, and 150 meters wide.

Son Dong is much larger than Deer Cave in Malaysia, currently considered the worlds largest, an explorer said (Deer is 90 meters wide, 100 meters high and 2 kilometers long).

Sơn Đoòng Cave was found by a local man named Hồ-Khanh in 1991.

The local jungle men were afraid of the cave for the whistling sound it makes from the underground river.

It was not until 2009 that it became public after a group of British scientists from the British Cave Research Association, led by Howard and Deb Limbert.

An exit from the cave was found in 2010.

Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park, its 330 square miles set aside in 2001 to protect one of Asias largest cave systems.

During the Vietnam War, North Vietnamese soldiers hid in caves from U.S. air strikes. Bomb craters now serve as fishponds.





The Best Fictional Adventure Books of All Time.

Nothing speaks to the heart of man like a good tale of adventure. Whether in the form of a bedtime story read to young boys or a nail biting page turner that keeps you up at night, the adventure story is one genre of literature that stays with you for a lifetime. The very mention of such novels brings to mind images of buried treasure, hidden deep in the jungle of a deserted island, protected by dastardly pirates and the local cannibal population. Or perhaps the mind jumps instead to the image of a forgotten world, complete with lost civilization and monstrous creatures of a bygone era.


Swiss Family Robinson by Johann David Wyss 1812

-this story tells of the happy discovery of the wonders of natural history by a family shipwrecked on a desert island, who remain united through all the adversities they encounter. Inspired by Robinson Crusoe, this joyful narrative by a Swiss pastor remains a classic tale.

The Call of the Wild.  Jack London 1903.

-this gripping story follows the adventures of the loyal dog Buck, who is stolen from his comfortable family home and forced into the harsh life of an Alaskan sled dog. Passed from master to master, Buck embarks on an extraordinary journey that ends with his becoming the legendary leader of a wolf pack.

Gary Paulsen 1987

-Brian Robertson, sole passenger on a Cessna 406, is on his way to visit his father when the tiny bush plane crashes in the Canadian wilderness. With nothing but his clothing, a tattered windbreaker, and the hatchet his mother had given him as a present, Brian finds himself completely alone.

Treasure Island by Robert Louis Stevenson 1883

-heady tale of a treasure map, a perilous sea journey across the Spanish Main, a mutiny led by the infamous Long John Silver, and a lethal scramble for buried treasure as seen through the eyes of cabin boy Jim Hawkins.

Captains Courageous
by Rudyard Kipling 1896

-a pampered millionaires son tumbles overboard from a luxury liner and falls into good fortune, disguised in the form of a fishing boat. The gruff and hearty crew teach the young man to be worth his salt as they fish the waters off the Grand Banks of Newfoundland.

She by H. Rider Haggard 1887

-follows Leo Vancey and Horace Holly on an expedition to Africa. They encounter many serious and dangerous trials, including shipwreck, sickness, and hostile natives, before discovering a legendary lost city in a system of underground caverns.

Ayesha: The Return of She by H. Rider Haggard 1905

-H. Rider Haggards suspenseful sequel to She returns to a mythological world of wizards and ancient cults to chronicle the adventures of two explorers in search of a spirit of Nature incarnate.

King Solomons Mines
by H. Rider Haggard 1885

-breakout novel is a grand, enjoyable adventure, a sort of Indiana Jones prototype from the great age of Victorian imperialism. It relates a journey into the heart of Africa by a group of adventurers led by Allan Quatermain in search of the legendary wealth said to be concealed in the mines of the novels title. It is significant as the first fictional adventure novel set in Africa, and is considered the genesis of the Lost World literary genre.

Southern Mail/Night Flight by Antoine de Saint-Exupery 1929/1931

-based on Saint-Exuperys trail-blazing flights for the French airmail service over the Sahara and later, the Andes, these two novels evoke the tragic courage and nobility of the airborne pioneers who took enormous risks, flying in open cock-pits in planes that were often fragile and unstable.

The Lost World
by Arthur Conan Doyle 1912

-expedition to a plateau in the Amazon basin of South America where prehistoric animals (dinosaurs and other extinct creatures) still survive.

The Man Who Would Be King
by Rudyard Kipling 1888

- the story of two British adventurers in British India who become kings of Kafiristan, a remote part of Afghanistan. It was inspired by the exploits of James Brooke, an Englishman who became the White Raja of Sarawak in Borneo, and by the travels of American adventurer Josiah Harlan, who claimed the title Prince of Ghor.

The Adventures of Captain Hatteras
by Jules Verne 1861

- adventures of British expedition led by Captain John Hatteras to the North Pole. As with many of Verne's imaginative creations, his description of Arctic geography was based on scientific knowledge at the time the novel was written (1866) but foreshadowed future discoveries.

The Tigers of Mompracem
by Emilio Salgari 1900

-the Tigers of Mompracem are a band of rebel pirates fighting against the colonial power of the Dutch and British Empires.

The Pirates of Malaysia
by Emilio Salgari 1896

-..pirate, who lives on the island Mompracem, and once was a prince in Borneo..

The Two Tigers by Emilio Salgari 1904

- ..its the Tiger of Malaysia versus the Tiger of India in a fight to the death!

Congo by Michael Crichton 1980

- the novel centers on an expedition searching for diamonds and investigating the mysterious deaths of a previous expedition in the dense rain forest of Congo.

Jurassic Park by Michael Crichton 1990

- the metaphor of the collapse of an amusement park showcasing genetically recreated dinosaurs to illustrate the mathematical concept of chaos theory and philosophical implications.

The Lost World by Michael Crichton 1995

- expedition to an isolated Central American location where dinosaurs roam. The dinosaurs were recreated by genetic engineering, rather than surviving from antiquity.

The Odyssey by Homer (have been composed near the end of the 8th century BC, is the second oldest extant work of Western literature)

- the poem mainly centers on the Greek hero Odysseus and his journey home after the fall of Troy.

The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien 1937

- band of dwarves embark upon a dangerous quest to reclaim the hoard of gold stolen from them by the evil dragon Smaug. Along the way, the company faces trolls, goblins, giant spiders, and worse.

The Lord of the Rings Series by J. R. R. Tolkien 1954

- an epic tale of friendship, love and heroism, a book that set the benchmark for all fantasy novels to come.

The Silmarillion by J. R. R. Tolkien 1977

- this is a wonderful introduction to the theology, cosmology, and history ..

Kidnapped by Robert Louis Stevenson 1886

- adventures on the high seas. Shipwreck. Murder. Flight. Intrigue. And of course, kidnapping.

20,000 Leagues Under the Sea by Jules Verne 1870

- perilous journey to the darkest depths of the sea with Captain Nemo aboard the Nautilus.

The Mysterious Island by Jules Verne 1874

- novel tells the story of five men and a dog who land in a balloon on a faraway, fantastic island of bewildering goings-on and their struggle to survive as they uncover the islands secret.

Around the World in Eighty Days by Jules Verne 1873

- Incredibly precise and controlled man by the name of Fogg goes to his gentleman's club every day and it is there that he accepts a wager to travel around the world in eighty days.

The Three Musketeers by Alexandre Dumas 1844

- the adventures of a young man named dArtagnan after he leaves home to travel to Paris, to join the Musketeers of the Guard.

Peter Pan by J. M. Barrie 1902

- Peter Pan spends his never-ending childhood adventuring on the small island of Neverland.

True at First Light by Ernest Hemingway 1999

- about his 1953-54 East African safari

The Thirty Nine Steps by John Buchan 1915

- the story was a great success with the men in the First World War trenches. One soldier wrote to Buchan, "The story is greatly appreciated in the midst of mud and rain and shells, and all that could make trench life depressing."

The Sea Wolf by Jack London 1904

- the Sea-Wolf is a tale of life under pressure; set across the great oceans, and will carry you on a voyage under the terrible circumstances of the weak young man pressed into service on the ship of a tyrannical monster: Wolf Larsen, the Sea-Wolf.

Roughing It by Mark Twain 1872

- the travels of young Mark Twain through the Wild West during the years 1861-1867.

The Beach by Alex Garland 1996

- about backpackers in Thailand.

Moby-Dick by Herman Melville 1851

- the story of Ishmaels whaling voyage.

Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe 1719

- The story is about a man who is stranded on a desert island for 28 years. With the supplies he's able to salvage from the wrecked ship, Robinson Crusoe eventually builds a fort and then creates for himself a kingdom by taming animals, gathering fruit, growing crops, and hunting.

Captain Blood by Rafael Sabatini 1922

- A gentlemanly Irish physician is innocently condemned to a life of slavery in the English colonies across the sea. There, on a Caribbean Island plantation, the good Dr. Peter Blood, toils as a slave. A chance raid by Spaniards affords Blood his opportunity to escape into a life of piracy and crime upon the high seas.

The Prisoner of Zenda by Anthony Hope 1894

- English gentleman hero, Rudolf Rassendyll, from a comfortable life in London to fast-moving adventures in Ruritania, a mythical land steeped in political intrigue.

Lord of the Flies by William Golding 1954

- In the midst of a wartime evacuation, a British plane crashes on or near an isolated island in a remote region of the Pacific Ocean. The only survivors are boys in their middle childhood or preadolescence.

Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad 1899

- Dark allegory describes the narrators journey up the Congo River and his meeting with, and fascination by, Mr. Kurtz, a mysterious personage who dominates the unruly inhabitants of the region.

Inca Gold by Clive Cussler 1994

- Nearly five centuries ago a fleet of boats landed mysteriously on an island in an inland sea. There, an ancient Andean people hid a golden hoard greater than that of any pharaoh, then they and their treasure vanished into history -- until now.

Sahara by Clive Cussler 1992

- Racing to save the world from environmental catastrophe, Pitt and his team, equipped with an extraordinary, state-of-the-art yacht, run a gauntlet between a billionaire industrialist and a bloodthirsty West African tyrant.

Treasure by Clive Cussler 1988

- Dirk Pitt discovers the secret trail of the treasures of Alexandria-- a trail that plunges him into a brutal conspiracy for total domination of the globe.

The Lighthouse at the End of the World by Jules Verne 1905

- ..Staten Island has caused the death of many ships on its shores, and the new lighthouse will provide a great service to sailors. The government sends three men to take the first seasonal shift in the lonely lighthouse. But Staten Island isnt as deserted as it looks; shipwrecked pirates have survived in secret during the construction of the lighthouse..

Le Morte DArthur by Sir Thomas Malory 1470

- the best-known work of English-language literature about King Arthur and of his Noble Knights of the Round Table

Journey to the Center of the Earth by Jules Verne 1864

- The intrepid Professor Liedenbrock embarks upon the strangest expedition of the nineteenth century: a journey down an extinct Icelandic volcano to the Earth's very core.

Tarzan of the Apes by Edgar Rice Burroughs 1914

- When Tarzan was a year old, his mother died of natural causes, and his father was killed by Kerchak, leader of the ape tribe into which Tarzan was adopted in the West coast of Africa.

The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas 1845

- Thrown in prison for a crime he has not committed, Edmond Dantès is confined to the grim fortress of If. There he learns of a great hoard of treasure hidden on the Isle of Monte Cristo and he becomes determined not only to escape, but also to unearth the treasure and use it to plot the destruction of the three men responsible for his incarceration.

The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling 1894

- in Central India, Mowgli is raised by a pack of wolves. Along the way he encounters memorable characters such as the foreboding tiger Shere Kahn, Bagheera the panther and Baloo the bear.

In Search of the Castaways by Jules Verne 1868

- The book tells the story of the quest for Captain Grant of the Britannia. A group of rescuers circumnavigate the globe and encounter the horrible forces of nature.

The People of the Mist by H. Rider Haggard 1894

- ..Leonard Outram, a young Englishman who's lost his fortune along with his fiancee's hand ends up in Africa..



The Greatest Adventure Books of All Time. Part 2

 "Tom said to himself that it was not such a hollow world, after all. He had discovered a great law of human action, without knowing it -- namely, that in order to make a man or a boy covet a thing, it is only necessary to make the thing difficult to attain." - Mark Twain

"Books are for people who wish they were somewhere else." - Mark Twain


Travels, Ibn Battuta, ca 1354

-Battutas is the greatest traveler of premodern times. Journeys that spanned nearly three decades and took him not only eastward to India and China but also north to the Volga River valley and south to Tanzania.

Ripped My Flesh, Tim Cahill, 1987

-..diving with sharks, caving in Kentucky, skydiving in California, filming poison sea snakes in the Philipines, exploring ancient ruins in Peru, clambered up Mount Roraima in the Guyana highlands..

Journal of a Trapper,
Osborne Russell, 1914

-nine Years in the Rocky Mountains.Comprising a general description of the country, climate, rivers, lakes, mountains, etc., the nature and habits of animals, manners and customs of Indians and a complete view of the life led by a hunter in those regions.

Full Tilt,
Dervla Murphy, 1965

-her epic journey began during the coldest winter in memory, taking her through Europe, Persia, Afghanistan, over the Himalayas to Pakistan, and into India.

Terra Incognita
, Sara Wheeler, 1996

-Sara Wheeler spent seven months in Antarctica, living with its scientists and dreamers.

We Die Alone
, David Howarth, 1955

-in 1943, four Norwegian soldiers arrive in the far north of Norway from England in a fishing boat. Their assignment is to sabotage the German occupation airstrip. The mission is betrayed and all are killed except for Jan Baalsrud. This is the story of Jans rescue.

, Gontran de Poncins, 1941

-de Poncins is a French nobleman who spent fifteen months in 1938 and 1939 living among the Inuit people of the Arctic.

Conquistadors of the Useless
, Lionel Terray, 1961

-following World War II, when France desperately needed successes to heal its wounds, Terray emerged as a national hero, conquering summits atop the planet's highest mountains. He climbed with legends such as Maurice Herzog, Gaston Rebuffat and Louis Lachenal. He made first ascents in the Alps, Alaska, the Andes and the Himalaya.

Carrying the Fire
, Micjael Collins, 1974

-Michael Collins is the best writer of all the astronauts. His description of what it's like to be alone behind the Moon, isolated from not only the Sun but from all humankind including the LM crew who were necessarily on the front side, is thoughtful and inspiring. Carrying the Fire has made a contribution to vicarious human experience that will be very hard to match.

Adventures in the Wilderness
, William H. H. Murray 1869

-or, Camp-life in the Adirondacks Mountains (N.Y.)

The Mountains of My Life
, Walter Bonatti, 1998

- the classic writings of world-famous mountaineer Walter Bonatti, and tells the real story of the 1954 controversy over the events on K2 that changed his life.

Great Heart,
James West Davidson and John Rugge, 1988

-in 1903 Leonidas Hubbard was commissioned by an outdoors magazine to explore Labrador by canoe.

Journal of the Voyage to the Pacific
, Alexander Mackenzie, 1801

-travels across Canada. Mackenzie describes that hardships of taking a canoe halfway across Canada past Native American tribes, some of whom had never seen a white man before.

The Valleys of the Assassins
, Freya Stark, 1934

- travels into Luristan, the mountainous terrain nestled between Iraq and present-day Iran, often with only a single guide and on a shoestring budget.

The Silent World
, Jacques Cousteau, 1953

-the Silent World is noted as one of the first films to use underwater cinematography to show the ocean depths in color.

Alaska Wilderness,
Robert Marshall, 1956

-Marshall traveled this spectacular country, from the Upper Koyukuk drainage to the Arctic Divide, making maps, recording scientific data, and exalting in the beauty of that incredibly pristine landscape.

Letter and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Conditions of the North, American Indians
, George Catlin, 1841

-eight years of travel amongst the wildest tribes of Indians in North America.

I Married Adventure
, Osa Johnson, 1940

- flew and sailed to Borneo, to Kenya, and to the Congo, filming Simba and other popular nature movies with Martin behind the camera and Osa holding her rifle at the ready in case the scene's big game star should turn hostile.

The Descent of Pierre Saint Martin,
Norbert Casteret, 1954

- tells a fascinating story of the exploration of a cave in the Pyrenees, which was found to be one of the deepest caves (at the time anyway.) The story follows the 1951, 1952 and 1953 expeditions to the cave -- beginning with the tragic loss of Casterets best friend and fellow speleologist Marcel Loubens.

The Crystal Horizon
, Reinhold Messner, 1982

- the first person to reach the summit of Everest solo and without supplemental oxygen.

Narrative of a Journey Across the Rocky Mountains to the Columbia River,
John Kirk Townsend, 1839

-his book, a classic of western exploration, chronicles the first transcontinental trek along the route that would soon become the Oregon Trail. The Wyeth expedition was a remarkable venture that united commerce, religion, and science.

Grizzly Years
, Doug Peacock, 1990

-author Doug Peacock traversed the rugged mountains of Montana and Wyoming tracking the magnificent grizzly.

One Mans Mountains
, Tom Patey, 1971

-this autobiography offers a glimpse into the mind of Tom Patey, a man whose contributed greatly to modern climbing.


The Greatest Adventure Books of All Time. Part 1

What are the essential ingredients in a great adventure story The Latin root of the word, oddly enough, means "an arrival," but adventure almost always entails a going out, and not just any going out but a bold one: Sail the Pacific on a balsa raft; pit your skills against K2; sledge to the South Pole. It is a quest whose outcome is unknown but whose risks are tangible, a challenge someone meets with courage, brains, and effort and then survives, we hope, to tell the tale.

The Worst Journey in the World, Apsley Cherry-Garrard, 1921
- is a memoir of the 1910-1913 British Antarctic Expedition led by Robert Falcon Scott.

The Journals of Lewis and Clark, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, 1814

-the first American expedition to cross what is now the western portion of the United States

Wind, Sand, and Stars, Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 1940

-in his autobiographical work Saint-Exupéry, an early pioneering aviator, evokes a series of events in his life principally the period when he was working for the airmail carrier Aéropostale. He does so by recounting several episodes from his years flying treacherous mail routes across the African Sahara and the South American Andes.

The Exploration of the Colorado River, John Wesley Powell, 1875

-a three-month river trip down the Green and Colorado rivers that included the first known passage through the Grand Canyon.

Arabian Sands, Wilfred Thesiger, 1959

-travels in the Empty Quarter of Arabia between 1945 and 1950 and describes the vanishing way of life of the Bedouins.

Annapurna, Maurice Herzog, 1952

-he led the expedition that first climbed a peak over 8000m

Desert Solitaire, Edward Abbey, 1968

-preoccupation with the deserts of the American Southwest. He describes how the desert affects society and more specifically the individual on a multifaceted, sensory level.

Into Thin Air, Jon Krakauer, 1997

-It details the authors presence at Mount Everest during the 1996 Mount Everest disaster, when eight climbers were killed and several others were stranded by a "rogue storm".

West With the Night, Beryl Markam, 1942

-during the pioneer days of aviation, she became the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic from east to west.

Travels, Marco Polo, 1298

-describing Polos travels through Asia, Persia, China, and Indonesia between 1276 and 1291 and his experiences at the court of the Mongol leader Kublai Khan.

Farthest North, Fridtjof Nansen, 1897

-in 1893 Fridtjof Nansen set sail for the North Pole in the Fram, a ship specially designed to be frozen into the polar ice cap, withstand its crushing pressures, and so drift North.

The Snow Leopard, Peter Matthiessen, 1978

-it is an account of his two-month search for the snow leopard with naturalist George Schaller in the Dolpo region on the Tibetan Plateau in the Himalayas.

Roughing It, Mark Twain, 1872

-illustrates many of Twains early adventures, including a visit to Salt Lake City, gold and silver prospecting, real-estate speculation and a journey to the Kingdom of Hawaii.

Two Years Before the Mast, Richard Henry Dana, 1840

-a two-year sea voyage starting in 1834. Dana gives a vivid account of "the life of a common sailor at sea as it really is".

South, Ernest Shackelton, 1919

-after the conquest of the South Pole by Amundsen, who, by a narrow margin of days only, was in advance of the British Expedition under Scott, there remained but one great main object of Antarctic journeyings the crossing of the South Polar continent from sea to sea.

A Short Walk in the Hindu Kush, Eric Newby, 1958

- it is an autobiographical account of his adventures in the Hindu Kush, around the Nuristan mountains of Afghanistan, ostensibly to make the first mountaineering ascent of Mir Samir.

Kon-Tiki, Thor Heyerdahl, 1950

-Kon-Tiki was the raft used by Norwegian explorer and writer Thor Heyerdahl in his 1947 expedition across the Pacific Ocean from South America to the Polynesian islands.

Travels in West Africa, Mary Kingsley, 1897

- traveling through western and equatorial Africa and becoming the first European to enter some parts of Gabon, Kingsley' s story--as an explorer and as a woman!

The Spirit of St. Louis, Charles Lindbergh, 1953

-the first non-stop flight from New York to Paris.

Seven Years in Tibet, Heinrich Harrer, 1953

-is an autobiographical travel book written by Austrian mountaineer Heinrich Harrer based on his real life experiences in Tibet between 1944 and 1951 during the Second World War and the interim period before the Communist Chinese Peoples Liberation Army invaded Tibet in 1950.

Journals, James Cook, 1768-1779

- in voyages that ranged from the Antarctic circle to the Arctic Sea, Cook charted Australia and the whole coast of New Zealand, and brought back detailed descriptions of the natural history of the Pacific.

The Home of the Blizzard, Douglas Mawson, 1915

- is a tale of discovery and adventure in the Antarctic-of pioneering deeds, great courage, heart-stopping rescues, and heroic perseverance. A True Story of Antarctic Survival.

The Voyage of the Beagle, Charles Darwin, 1839

-five-year voyage has become legendary, as insights gained by the bright scientist on his trip to exotic places greatly influenced his masterwork, the book On the Origin of Species.

The Seven Pillars of Wisdom, T. E. Lawrence, 1926

-prior to the First World War, Lawrence had begun work on a scholarly book about seven great cities of the Middle East.

Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa, Mungo Park, 1799

 -explorer of the African continent. He was credited as being the first Westerner to encounter the central portion of the Niger River.

The Right Stuff, Tom Wolfe, 1979

-about the pilots engaged in U.S. postwar experiments with experimental rocket-powered, high-speed aircraft as well as documenting the stories of the first Project Mercury astronauts selected for the NASA space program.

Sailing Alone Around the World,
Joshua Slocum, 1900

- was the first man to sail single-handedly around the world.

The Mountain of My Fear and Deborah, David Roberts, 1968, 1970

-The publication changed the face of the mountaineering narrative. The story tells not only what happened on the mountain, but what happened in the stark isolation to the climbers and their friendship, as each became totally dependent on the other for survival.

First Footsteps in East Africa, Richard Burton, 1856

-Burton recounts his travels to Harar, a city in East Africa notorious for its slave trade activity. His plan was a challenging one, as it was believed that no European had been there before

The Perfect Storm, Sebastian Junger, 1997

-about the storm that hit North America between October and November 1991, and features the crew of the fishing boat Andrea Gail, from Gloucester, who were lost at sea during severe conditions while longline fishing for swordfish 925 km out.

The Oregon Trail, Francis Parkman, 1849

-detailed accounts of the hardships experienced while traveling across mountains and prairies; vibrant portraits of emigrants and Western wildlife; and vivid descriptions of Indian life and culture.

Through the Dark Continent, Henry M. Stanley, 1878

-great explorers classic account of explorations of lakes of Central Africa, perilous journey down unexplored Congo River

A Ladys Life in the Rocky Mountains, Isabella L. Bird, 1879

-she rode her horse through the American Wild West, a terrain only newly opened to pioneer settlement. They tell of magnificent, unspoiled landscapes and abundant wildlife, of encounters with rattlesnakes, wolves, pumas and grizzly bears, and her reactions to the volatile passions of the miners and pioneer settlers.

In the Land of White Death, Valerian Albanov, 1917

-in search of new Arctic hunting grounds, Albanov's ship, the Saint Anna, was frozen fast in the pack ice of the treacherous Kara Sea-a misfortune grievously compounded by an incompetent commander, the absence of crucial nautical charts, insufficient fuel, and inadequate provisions that left the crew weak and debilitated by scurvy.

Endurance, F. A. Worsley, 1931

-the legendary tale of Ernest Shackletons grueling Antarctic expedition, recounted in riveting first-person detail by the captain of HMS Endurance.

Scrambles Amongst the Alps, Edwad Whymper, 1871

-Whympers own story of his nine years spent climbing in the Alps. .. is an essential classic of climbing literature by one of mountaineerings most legendary figures.

Out of Africa, Isak Dinesen, 1837

-in this book, the author gives a true account of her life on her plantation in Kenya. She tells with classic simplicity of the ways of the country and the natives.

Scotts Last Expedition: The Journals, Robert Falcon Scott, 1913

-in his journals Scott records his partys optimistic departure from New Zealand, the hazardous voyage of theTerra Nova to Antarctica, and the trek with ponies and dogs across the ice to the Pole.

Everest: The West Ridge, Thomas Hornbein, 1963

-the classic, gripping mountaineering saga of the first ascent of Everests West Ridge.

Journey Without Maps
, Graham Greene, 1936

-about a 350-mile, 4-week walk through the interior of Liberia.

Starlight and Storm
, Gaston Rebuffat, 1954

-Rebuffat tells of his ascent of the treacherous north faces of six of Europes greatest peaks, the Grand Jorasses, the Piz Badile, the Drus, the Matterhorn, the Cima Grande di Lavaredo, and the Eiger.

My First Summer in the Sierra,
John Muir, 1911

-describes stay in Californias Yosemite River Valley and the Sierra Mountains.

My Life As an Explorer,
Sven Hedin, 1925

-Hedin traveled the ancient Silk Road, discovered long-lost cities, mapped previously uncharted rivers, and saw more of "the roof of the world" than any European before him.

In Trouble Again
, Redmond OHanlon, 1988

-OHanlon takes us into the bug-ridden rain forest between the Orinoco and the Amazon--infested with jaguars and piranhas, where men would kill over a bottle of ketchup and where the locals may be the most violent people on earth.

The Man Who Walked Through Time
, Colin Fletcher, 1968

-the remarkable classic of nature writing by the first man ever to have walked the entire length of the Grand Canyon.

K2  The Savage Mountain,
Charles Houstan and Robert Bates, 1954

-the 1953 American expedition to the second highest peak in the world.

Gipsy Moth Circles the World
, Francis Chichester, 1967

-many believed he wouldnt return alive. But when the old man returned nine months later, he had made history's fastest circumnavigation.

Man Eaters of Kumaon
, Jim Corbett, 1944

-it details the experiences that Corbett had in the Kumaon region of India from the 1900s to the 1930s, while hunting man-eating tigers and leopards.

, Richard Byrd, 1938

-when Byrd set out on his second Antarctic expedition in 1934, he was already an international hero for having piloted the first flights over the North and South Poles.

Stranger in the Forest
, Eric Hansen, 1988

- the first westerner ever to walk across the island of Borneo. Completely cut off from the outside world for seven months, he traveled nearly 1,500 miles with small bands of nomadic hunters known as Penan.

Travels in Arabia Deserta
, Chares M. Doughty, 1988

-two years wandering among the Bedouin nomads, the remarkable book describes Doughtys attempt to reach Mecca.

The Royal Road to Romance
, Richard Halliburton, 1925

-traveling the world with almost no money. Chronicles what happened as a result, from a breakthrough Matterhorn ascent to being jailed for taking forbidden pictures on Gibraltar.

The Long Walk,
Slavomir Rawicz, 1956

-in 1941 he and six others had escaped from a Siberian Gulag camp and began a long journey south on foot- (about 6,500 km). They endeavored through the Gobi Desert, Tibet, and the Himalayas to finally reach British India in the winter of 1942.

Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada
, Clarence King, 1872

-Kings mountain climbing descriptions are spine-tingling but they still provide strong impressions and colorful descriptions of the Sierra Nevada following the gold rush.

My Journey to Lhasa
, Alexandra David-Neel, 1927

-personal recounting of her journey to Lhasa, Tibets forbidden city.

Journal of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile
, John Hanning Speke, 1863

-is an exhaustive account of Spekes exploration of central Africa during the late 1850s. His account of his actual visit to Lake Victoria.

Running the Amazon
, Joe Kane, 1989

-the voyage began in the lunar terrain of the Peruvian Andes and ended six months and 4,200 miles later, where the Amazon runs gently into the Atlantic.

, Piers Paul Read, 1974

-a plane carrying a team of young rugby players crashed into the remote, snow-peaked Andes. For ten excruciating weeks to survive, they were forced to do what would have once been unthinkable ...

Principall Navigations
, Richard Hakluyt, 1589-90

-his book The principal navigations, voiages, traffiques and discoveries of the English nation, made by sea or over-land, to the remote and farthest distant quarters of the earth was a massive compendium of voyages from antiquity to the present.

Incidents of Travel in Yucatan
, John Lloyd Stephens, 1843

-travel to the Maya ruins of Mexicos Yucatan peninsula.

The Shipwreck of the Whaleship Essex
, Owen Chase, 1821

-an enraged sperm whale rammed the Nantucket whaler Essex. As the boat began to sink, her crew of thirty had time only to collect some bread and water before pulling away in three frail open boats.

Life in the Far West
, George Frederick Ruxton, 1849

-the author, from his intimate acquaintance with the trappers and traders of the American Far West.

My Life as an Explorer
, Roald Amundsen, 1849

-the true story of the first man to reach the South Pole.

News from Tartary,
Peter Fleming, 1936

- is a classic travel book about trekking through the wilds of Asia.

Annapurna: A Womans Place
, Arlene Blum, 1980

-the first Americans and the first women to scale the treacherous slopes of Annapurna I, the worlds tenth highest peak.

Mutiny on the Bounty,
William Bligh, 1790

-near the island known today as Tonga, William Bligh and eighteen surly seamen were expelled from the Bounty and began what would be the greatest open-boat voyage in history, sailing some 4,000 miles to safety in Timor.

, Stephen Callahan, 1986

-survived for 76 days adrift on the Atlantic Ocean in a liferaft.

, Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, 1555

-this enthralling story of survival is the first major narrative of the exploration of North America by Europeans.

Touching the Void
, Joe Simpson, 1989

-terrifying adventure in the Peruvian Andes.

, Robyn Davidson, 1980

-young womans odyssey through the deserts of Australia, with no one but her dog and four camels as companions.

Adventures of Captain Bonneville
, Washington Irving, 1837

-..carrying orders to collect information on the geography, geology, and topography " of the Country within the limits of the Territories belonging to the United States, between our frontier and the Pacific"..

Coopers Creek
, Alan Moorehead, 1963

- in 1860, an expedition set out from Melbourne, Australia, into the interior of the country, with the mission to find a route to the northern coast.

The Fearful Void
, Geoffrey Moorhouse, 1874

-..I had decided to attempt a crossing of the great Sahara desert, from west to east, by myself and by camel. No one had ever made such a journey before ..

No Picnic on Mount Kenya,
Felie Benuzzi, 1953

-in 1943, Felice Benuzzi and two Italian compatriots escaped from a British POW camp in equatorial East Africa with only one goal in mind--to climb the dangerous seventeen-thousand-foot Mount Kenya.

Through the Brazilian Wilderness
, Theodore Roosevelt, 1914

-scientific expedition into the Brazilian jungle.

The Road to Oxiana
, Robert Byron, 1937

- a journey through the Middle East via Beirut, Jerusalem, Baghdad and Teheran to Oxiana, near the border between Afghanistan and the Soviet Union.

77 Minus148 Degrees
, Art Davidson, 1969

-one of the classic tales of climbing Mount McKinley.

The Greatest Adventure Books of All Time. Part 2 -    http://explorerplanet.blogg.no/1372625990_the_greatest_adventur.html


High-altitude river rafting.

Vladimir Ivanovich Lysenko is a Russian academic and world traveller.

Lysenko became the first man to raft on rivers flowing down all of the world's eight-thousanders the 14 mountains with peaks higher than 8,000 meters above sea level.

No.                 Peak                           Rivers

1.                   Everest(8848m)         a) Lobuche Khola, Imja Khola, Dudh Kosi, Sun Kosi, Sapt Kosi (Nepal)

                                                         b) Eastern Rong Chu, Rong Chu, Phung Chu (China), Arun, Sapt Kosi (Nepal)

2.                   K-2(Qogir)(8611m)    a) Braldu, Shigar, Indus (Pakistan)

                                                        b) Chogir(K-2), Shaksgam, Yarkand (China)

3.                   Kangchenjunga(8586m)                a) Tamur (Nepal)

                                                                            b) Tista (India)

4.                   Lhotse(8516m)            Imja Khola, Dudh Kosi, Sun Kosi (Nepal)

5.                   Makalu(8463m)           Barun, Arun (Nepal)

6.                   Cho Oyu(8201m)        Dudh Kosi, Sun Kosi (Nepal)

7.                   Dhaulagiri(8167m)    a) Myagdi, Kali Gandaki (Nepal)

                                                       b) Rahughat Khola, Kali Gandaki (Nepal)

8.                   Manaslu(8156m)        a) Buri Gandaki, Trisuli (Nepal)

                                                        b) Marsyangdi, Trisuli (Nepal)

9.                   Nanga Parbat(8125m)                    Bunar, Indus (Pakistan)

10.                Annapurna(8091m) a) Marsyangdi, Trisuli (Nepal)

                                                     b) Modi, Kali Gandaki (Nepal)

                                                     c) Kali Gandaki (Nepal)

11.                Gasherbrum-1(8068m)                  a) Braldu, Shigar, Indus (Pakistan)

12.                Broad Peak(8049m)                     b) Shaksgam, Yarkand (China)

13.                Gasherbrum-2(8035m)                   

14.                Shisha Pangma(8013m)                 Bhote Kosi, Sun Kosi (Nepal)

In 1996, Lysenko became the first man to raft down the highest peak of every continent (except the Antarctic, which has no rivers), as well as the highest peak of Oceania.

No.               Continent                         Mountain                  Rivers

1.                   Asia                               Everest(8848m)       a)Lobuche Khola, Imja Khola, Dudh-Kosi, Sun-Kosi, Sapt-Kosi (Nepal)

                                                                                             b)Rong Chu, Phung Chu (China), Arun, Sapt-Kosi (Nepal)

2.                   South America              Aconcagua(6960m)   Orcones, Las Cuevas, Mendosa (Argentina)

3.                   North America               McKinley(6194m)       McKinley, Kantishna (USA)

4.                   Africa                            Kilimanjaro(5896m)    Karanga (Tanzania)

5.                   Europe                           Elbrus(5642m)           Baksan; Kuban (Russia)

                                                            Mont Blanc(4807m)   Dora Baltea (Italy)

6.                   Australia                        Kosciusko(2230m)    Snowy (Australia)

7.                        Oceania                                 Jaya(5030m)                    Kemabu, Darewo (Indonesia)

He set several Guinness World Records related to high-altitude river rafting.

While rafting down Mount Everest in Nepal in April and May 1991, Lysenko set the Guinness World Record for the greatest altitude difference travelled in a rafting trip: a descent of 4,500 meters from Dughla on the Khumbu Glacier (4,600 metres above sea level) to Chatara (100 metres above sea level).

In September 1996, he set the Guinness World Record for high-altitude rafting with a 5,600 meters start on the Eastern Rong Chu River on Mount Everest; the previous record of 5,334 meters had been set in September 1976 by the Mike-Jones team of England.

Vladimir rafted also on mountain sources of Amazon River and the Nile, kayaked on Yukon River. He rafted in 25 countries.


Beginning from September 1997 (with finish in August 2002), Lysenko made the ROUND-THE-WORLD CAR TOUR and had crossed 62 countries.

Circumnavigation on a bicycle. The start was in Vladivostok, Russia in 2006. Lysenko has ridden 40,100 kilometers on a bicycle. He has cycled via 25 countries.

ROUND-THE-WORLD ALONG-EQUATOR TOUR. Lysenko had circumnavigated the globe from west to east, straying no more than two degrees of latitude from the Equator. Finish in 2012.

Lysenko have started project FROM EARTHS BOWELS TO STRATOSPHERE (descent-ascent for 30 kilometers). He made the descent for 3,5 km in the deepest world?s mine "Mponeng Mine" (former "Western Deep Levels") in South Africa and he plans to ascend in fighter-aircraft MiG-25 to the altitude of 26.5 km. Lysenko looks for sponsors and companions for this project.

Lysenko holds a Doctorate of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in fluid mechanics. He is a senior fellow at the Institute of Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Novosibirsk. He authored the book Stability and Transition of High-Speed Boundary Layers and Wakes, as well as over 100 scientific papers.

Lysenko is the President of Union of Russian Around-the-World Travelers,and the Chairman of Himalayan Club of Russian Rafters & Kayakers.

Les mer i arkivet » November 2015 » September 2015 » Juni 2015


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